- de Carvalho, M.R., N. Lovejoy and R.S. Rosa 2003 Potamotrygonidae (River stingrays). p. 22-28. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36687)
Habitat and Ecology
Different biological data have been observed in distinct river basins/regions, according to the following authors:
Venezuelan llanos (Lasso et al. 1996)
Size at maturity: 23 cm DW (male), 29.5 cm DW (female)
Maximum size: 31 cm DW
Litter size: 1
Brazilian Amazon Basin (Charvet-Almeida, Araújo and Almeida 2005)
Size at maturity: 39 cm DW (male), 44 cm DW (female)
Gestation time: estimated at six months
Reproductive periodicity: annual, birthing during the rainy season
Litter size: 1-5 (average of 2).
Tocantins Basin (Rincón unpublished data)
Size at maturity: 23 cm DW (male), 26-28 cm DW (female)
Maximum size: 42.8 cm DW
Size at birth: ~25-26 cm TL. The smallest neonate captured was 26.5 cm TL (13 cm DW).
Reproductive periodicity: May breed year-round, but gestation period unknown.
Litter size: 1
The feeding habit of this species includes mainly insects (Lasso et al. 1996; assessors unpublished data).
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- Needs updating
Capture for the ornamental trade has been steady but in small quantities in the last five years (Araújo, personal observation). It has a low value in the ornamental market and so is not highly sought after.
- IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
Required Conservation Measures include development of fishery monitoring programs, specific legislation for the sport fishery, public education to reduce persecution in tourist areas and the protection of nursery areas.