Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Common in shallow areas and near banks (Ref. 27749). Reproductive biology in upper Orinoco basin provided by Lasso et al. (1997a), where females appear to bear only two young per gestation. Larger individuals may attain 25 kg in weight. Food includes insects, crustaceans and fishes (Ref. 36687).
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Distribution

Range Description

South America inland waters: Amazon?Solimões River and tributaries in Brazil and the Rio Orinoco drainage in Venezuela, Northern Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador.

FAO Area: 03.
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South America: Amazon River basin (Ucayali, Solimões, Amazon, Negro, Branco, Madeira and its affluents in Bolivia, and Tocantins River) and Orinoco basin.
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Amazon River and Oronico River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela [if treated with this authorship].
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 650 mm WD
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Max. size

80.0 cm WD (male/unsexed; (Ref. 36687)); 78 cm WD (female); max. published weight: 14.0 kg (Ref. 27749); max. published weight: 25 kg
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occupies shallow warm waters with temperatures around 25ºC. Juveniles inhabit areas with sandy beaches and small creeks while adults inhabit main river channels and sandy beaches, mainly during the night when it uses these areas to forage. In the Rio Negro, the species apparently shows daily movements between deeper and shallow water.

Information on reproductive biology is known only from Brazil and Venezuela. Reproductive mode is matrotrophic viviparity with trophonemata. The duration of the reproductive cycle is around two years. Gestation period is estimated as nine months. Ovarian fecundity is 3?5 and the average uterine fecundity is two embryos. Sexual segregation has been observed in this species. Size at birth 16 cm DW; size at maturity 60 cm DW (males) and 72 cm DW (females); maximum size is 130 cm DW.

Diet includes small fishes, shrimps, worms and insect larvae.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; freshwater
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Trophic Strategy

Feeds on fish, benthic organisms, plants and detritus (Ref. 27749).
  • Lasso, C.A., A. Rial B. and O. Lasso-Alcalá. 1997 Notes on the biology of the freshwater stingrays Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle, 1841) and Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau, 1855) (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) in the Venezuelan Llanos. Aqua, J. Ichthyol. Aquat. Biol. 2(3):39-52. (Ref. 27749)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=27749&speccode=50646 External link.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Paratrygon aiereba

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 24
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Góes de Araújo, M.L. & Rincón, G.

Reviewer/s
Kyne, P.M., Cavanagh, R.D. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
The Manzana Ray (Paratrygon aiereba) is a common, widespread species of the Amazonas Basin and the only species in this monotypic genus of the Potamotrygonidae, the Manzana Ray attains a size of about 130 cm disc width and 60 kg. Its export for the ornamental fish trade is illegal from Brazil, but it is regularly exported from Peru and from Colombia, where it does not occur in the wild. It is also taken by commercial fisheries and, like other potamotrygonids, habitat degradation and persecution are of concern. Although widespread, this species faces numerous threats, and, given its large size and low fecundity (two offspring every second year), it is potentially vulnerable to the effects of these threats. However, due to an overall lack of information, the species is assessed as Data Deficient and should be reassessed in the near future as new information comes to light.
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Population

Population
This species is widespread around the Amazonas-Solimões River and tributaries. Around the Rio Negro in Brazil this species occurs in at least 42 tributaries, and is known to occur in high densities.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Habitat degradation. Persecution in popular tourism areas due to fear of injury. This species is taken as bycatch in commercial fisheries with trawl nets along the Solimões-Amazonas River. Commercial fisheries retain and market this species. Its export for the ornamental fish trade is illegal from Brazil, but it is regularly exported from Peru and Colombia.
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Data deficient (DD)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The capture and exportation of this species for the ornamental fish trade is illegal in Brazil. However, local people on Brazilian borders complain that specimens captured in Brazil are exported from Colombia or Peru. An international program to regulate the export of freshwater stingrays in the ornamental fish trade is necessary.

There are no regulations or controls on catches by commercial fisheries.

Habitat protection and fisheries monitoring programs are recommended.
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