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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults inhabit upper edge of outer reef slopes and inshore rocky reefs. Juveniles associated with drifting seaweed (Ref. 12114, 12115). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feed on zooplankton, benthic algae, and small invertebrates (Ref. 1602). Often in aggregations (Ref. 9710) feeding at midwater or tending nests among rocks and coral ledges (Ref. 90102). In large numbers at spawning sites that are timed with large tides that carry their pelagic offspring far offshore (Ref. 48636). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and eastern Africa to the Line and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to Australia. Recorded in Bay of Islands, New Zealand (Ref. 35942). Often confused with the closely related Atlantic species Abudefduf saxatilis (Ref. 7247).
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South Africa and East Africa, Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), and northern New Zealand; Mediterranean Sea immigrant;
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 13; Dorsal soft rays (total): 11 - 14; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 11 - 13
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Size

Maximum size: 200 mm TL
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Max. size

20.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4391))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Inhabits upper edge of outer reef slopes and inshore rocky reefs. Feeds on zooplankton, benthic algae, and small invertebrates (Ref. 1602).
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Description

Inhabits upper edge of outer reef slopes and inshore rocky reefs. Feeds on zooplankton, benthic algae, and small invertebrates (Ref. 1602).
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Description: Head and body white, vertical bars five dark broad. Dorsal yellow during courtship and nesting period. Body depth 1.7-2.0 in SL (Ref. 90102).
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 78 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 42 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.1 - 100
  Temperature range (°C): 23.846 - 29.325
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.045 - 2.682
  Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 35.293
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.408 - 4.744
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.397
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.829 - 6.035

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.1 - 100

Temperature range (°C): 23.846 - 29.325

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.045 - 2.682

Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 35.293

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.408 - 4.744

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.397

Silicate (umol/l): 0.829 - 6.035
 
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Depth: 1 - 15m.
From 1 to 15 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Environment

reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 1 - 15 m (Ref. 30874)
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Depth range based on 78 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 42 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.1 - 100
  Temperature range (°C): 23.846 - 29.325
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.045 - 2.682
  Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 35.293
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.408 - 4.744
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.397
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.829 - 6.035

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.1 - 100

Temperature range (°C): 23.846 - 29.325

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.045 - 2.682

Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 35.293

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.408 - 4.744

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.397

Silicate (umol/l): 0.829 - 6.035
 
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits the upper edge of outer reef slopes and inshore rocky reefs (Ref. 7247, 54301). Often hovers in small or large schools over the reefs (Ref. 6110). Juveniles associate with drifting seaweed (Ref. 12114, 12115). Often in aggregations (Ref. 9710). Feeds on zooplankton, benthic algae, and small invertebrates (Ref. 1602).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Abudefduf vaigiensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 15 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTCTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCTGGAATAGTAGGAACAGCCCTG---AGCCTCCTAATTCGAGCAGAACTTAGCCAACCAGGCGCTCTCCTCGGAGAC---GACCAAATTTACAACGTAATTGTTACGGCACATGCCTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATCGGAGGGTTTGGAAACTGACTAATTCCACTAATG---ATCGGTGCCCCCGATATGGCATTCCCCCGAATGAACAATATGAGCTTCTGACTCCTCCCTCCATCGTTCTTACTTCTTCTTGCCTCCTCCGGAGTTGAAGCAGGTGCAGGAACAGGCTGAACTGTTTATCCACCACTATCAGGCAACCTAGCTCACGCAGGAGCATCTGTTGACCTA---ACTATTTTCTCCCTTCACTTAGCAGGTGTATCCTCAATTTTAGGAGCCATTAATTTTATTACTACTATTATTAACATGAAACCTCCTGCTATTTCTCAATACCAGACTCCTCTTTTCGTATGAGCCGTACTCATCACGGCCGTGCTTCTTCTTCTGTCCCTTCCTGTCCTAGCCGCT---GGAATTACAATACTTCTAACGGACCGAAACTTAAATACCACATTCTTCGATCCAGCTGGAGGAGGAGATCCTATTCTCTACCAACATTTA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Abudefduf vaigiensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 16
Specimens with Barcodes: 35
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Indo-Pacific sergeant

The Indo-Pacific sergeant (Abudefduf vaigiensis) may also be known as the Sergeant major although this name is usually reserved for the closely related species Abudefduf saxatilis.

Distribution[edit]

By a reef with fire coral in Taba, Egypt.

The Indo-Pacific sergeant is found in the Indo-Pacific including the Red Sea.[1]Indian Ocean populations are found in the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, Arabia, the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, the Maldives, eastern Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, the Andaman Sea, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia.[1] Populations in the Pacific Ocean are found in the Gulf of Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Japan, the Yellow Sea, the Great Barrier Reef around Australia, New Zealand, and Pacific islands all the way to Hawaii.[1] They are also recently found in the Mediterranean Sea.[2]

Description[edit]

Abudefduf vaigiensis are white bluish with a yellow top. They have a black spot around their dorsal fin. It has yellow eyes. The dorsal fin on this fish has 13 dorsal spines and 11 to 14 dorsal soft rays.[1] The anal fin on the Indo-Pacific sergeant has 2 anal spines and 11 to 13 anal soft rays.[1] Its maximum recorded size is 20 centimetres (7.9 in).[1] Juveniles mature at 12 centimetres (4.7 in).[1] Males turn more blue during spawning.[1] Many people confuse this fish for Abudefduf saxatilis, a closely related species found in the Atlantic Ocean.[1]

Ecology[edit]

Diet[edit]

They feed on zooplankton, benthic algae, and small invertebrates.[3]

Habitat[edit]

Adults live in coral reefs, tide pools, and rocky reefs.[1] Larva of this species live in the open sea.[1] It is found in tropical and subtropical waters. Depth ranges of 1 to 15 metres (3.3 to 49.2 ft) are where people encounter this fish.[1]

Behavior[edit]

These fish form large aggregations.[1] In the aggregations, individuals either feed in the midwater or tend their nests.[1]

In the aquarium[edit]

This fish is found in the aquarium trade.

Hazards to humans[edit]

There have been reports of ciguatera poisoning from this fish.[1]

References[edit]

Life Cycle[edit]

Early life[edit]

The larva hatch and drift out in to the pelagic zone.[1] They drift in the waves and grow up until they go to a reef.[1]

Breeding[edit]

Males turn more bluish during spawning.[1] They build nests on rocks or coral ledges.[1] Then, females lay their eggs in the nests and the male fertilizes them.[4] Males guard and aerate the eggs until they hatch.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2007). "Abudefduf vaigiensis" in FishBase. May 2007 version.
  2. ^ Siliotti, A. (2002) fishes of the red sea Verona, Geodia ISBN 88-87177-42-2
  3. ^ Lieske, E. and Myers, R.F. (2004) Coral reef guide; Red Sea London, HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-715986-2
  4. ^ a b "Abudefduf vaigiensis" Encyclopedia of Life Retrieved on December 21, 2014
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