Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Oviparous (Ref. 50449, 81217). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205). Maximum length for female from Ref. 26574.
  • Jeong, C.-H. and T. Nakabo 1997 Raja koreana, a new species of skate (Elasmobranchii, Rajoidei) from Korea. Ichthyol. Res. 44(4):413-420. (Ref. 26574)
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Distribution

Range Description

Northwest Pacific: this skate may be restricted to southern Korean waters. It is found in a relatively small area of the southwest to southeast coast of the Korean Peninsula, including the Jeju Strait, Heuksan Islands and Cheongsan Islands. Records of juveniles of this species from Goto Islands and Danjo Islands in Japan require verification (Jeong 1999, Jeong and Nakabo 1997, Nakabo 2002, Tokimura et al. 1999).
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Korean Peninsula: southwestern sea of Korea.
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Northwest Pacific: southwestern coast of the Korean Peninsula.
  • Jeong, C.-H. and T. Nakabo 1997 Raja koreana, a new species of skate (Elasmobranchii, Rajoidei) from Korea. Ichthyol. Res. 44(4):413-420. (Ref. 26574)
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

76.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 26574)); 73.5 cm TL (female)
  • Jeong, C.-H. and T. Nakabo 1997 Raja koreana, a new species of skate (Elasmobranchii, Rajoidei) from Korea. Ichthyol. Res. 44(4):413-420. (Ref. 26574)
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Diagnostic Description

This species is characterized by two derived character states: rostral cartilage continuous with the neurocranium and stout proximally, but very slender and uncalcified distally; and a broad anterior fontanelle, extending forward onto the basal part of rostral cartilage, slightly beyond the leading edge of nasal capsules. Other characters that distinguished this species are the following: the dorsal surface of tail of both sexes with a row of distinct thorns along midline; most thorns are directed anteriorly; middle of dorsal surface of disc with a pair of longitudinally elongated black blotches with undulated contours; three groups of outer buccal ampullae and tubules; three groups of nasal ampullae and tubules; ventral surface with hyoidean ampullae and tubules extending posteriorly past cloaca; rostral shaft is narrow with filamentous cartilage at the base; scapulocoracoid comparatively short and high with dorsoventrally elliptical anterior fenestra and expanded postventral fenestra; external margin of mesopterygium of pectoral fin slightly undulated, not sinuous nor fused with pectoral radials; with clasper component eperon and pent (Ref. 81217).
  • Jeong, C.-H. and T. Nakabo 2009 Hongeo, a new skate genus (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae), with redescription of the type species. Ichthyol. Res. 56(2):140-155. (Ref. 81217)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Okamejei koreana is found at depths ranging from about 30?80 m (Jeong and Nakabo 1997, H.-M. Kim pers. comm.). This rare skate may hibernate around Heuksan-do Islands from November to April, and then move to inshore to the coast of the Korean Peninsula (H.-M. Kim pers. comm.). This species attains at least 82 cm total length (TL) (female) to 84 cm TL (male) (Kim et al. in prep.). Like other skates, this species is oviparous. Egg capsules measure about 11.3 cm long and 4.0 cm wide (C.H. Jeong unpublished data). The female releases the egg capsules on muddy and/or sandy substrate. No other information is currently available on this species? biology or ecology.

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth: 30 - 70m.
From 30 to 70 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Named for its type locality.
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 30 - 180 m (Ref. 81217)
  • Jeong, C.-H. and T. Nakabo 2009 Hongeo, a new skate genus (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae), with redescription of the type species. Ichthyol. Res. 56(2):140-155. (Ref. 81217)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Hongeo koreana

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCCTTTACTTAATTTTTGGTGCCTGAGCAGGTATGGTCGGAACTGGCCTG---AGTCTTTTAATCCGAGCAGAACTAAGTCAGCCAGGGGCCCTCCTAGGTGAC---GATCAGATTTATAATGTCATTGTTACAGCCCATGCCTTTGTAATAATCTTTTTTATGGTCATACCAATTATAATCGGGGGGTTTGGCAATTGACTTGTCCCCCTAATA---ATCGGCTCCCCAGACATGGCCTTCCCGCGCATGAATAATATAAGTTTTTGACTCCTGCCTCCCTCTTTTCTTCTCCTTCTGGCCTCCGCCGGGGTTGAAGCCGGGGCCGGAACAGGCTGAACTGTTTACCCCCCTCTAGCAGGAAATCTAGCCCACGCAGGGGCCTCCGTAGACCTA---ACAATTTTCTCTCTTCACTTAGCAGGTATTTCATCTATTCTGGCCTCCATTAACTTCATCACCACAATTATTAACATGAAGCCACCAGCAATCTCTCAATACCAAACACCCTTATTCGTCTGATCAATTCTTGTTACAACCGTCTTACTTCTTATAGCCCTCCCAGTTCTAGCAGCC---GGCATCACTATACTTCTTACAGATCGTAATCTCAACACAACTTTCTTTGATCCAGCTGGAGGAGGTGACCCCATTCTGTACCAACACCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hongeo koreana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Jeong, C.-H. & Ishihara, H.I.

Reviewer/s
Valenti, S.V. & Musick, J.A. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
The range of this apparently rare skate is poorly defined. The Korean Skate (Okamejei koreana) is known from southern Korean waters, where it may be endemic, but additional reports from Goto Islands and Danjo Islands in Japan require verification. It occurs at depths of 30?80 m and attains about 84 cm total length. The Korean Skate is targeted along with other skates in gillnet fisheries off southern Korea, but no species-specific data are available. This species? apparent rarity and restricted range in an area where target fisheries operate is of concern and further information is urgently required to determine its status. Insufficient information is currently available to assess it beyond Data Deficient and research is urgently required on its abundance, interaction with fisheries and full range.
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Population

Population
Little specific information is available on the population of this apparently rare skate. It does not seem to be regularly recorded but is observed in low numbers on fish markets. Only about 100 individuals were observed during fish market surveys conducted in southern Korea over 15 months (Sept. 2002?Dec. 2003) (Kim et al. in prep.). There is concern that it is now more rarely observed than historically, but no quantitative data are currently available on the scale or extent of any decline. The Jeju Strait and the area around the southern Heuksan-do Islands (southeastern Korea), where this species is more commonly found, appear to be important sites for this species (Jeong 1999).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is both a target and utilised bycatch of commercial fisheries. Skates are targeted using set gillnets off southern Korea. Declining catches have led to a decrease in target fishing in recent years, but no species-specific data are available, so it is difficult to identify which species are involved. No information is currently available on the historical abundance of this species, although there is concern that it may have declined. It is rare throughout its relatively small geographic range, except in relatively narrow areas of habitat around the Jeju Strait and the southern Heuksan-do Islands (southeastern Korea).
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Data deficient (DD)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are currently no conservation actions for this species. Research is urgently required on its abundance, interaction with fisheries and full range, including species-specific monitoring of catches.
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Wikipedia

Korean skate

The Korean skate (Hongeo koreana) is a skate in the family Rajidae, and is the sole member of its genus. It occurs along the coast of the southwestern Korean Peninsula.

References

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