Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits mountain lake (Lake Kezenoi-am) with altitude of 1870 m above sea level, with a maximum depth of 74 m, temperature about 5° C below 20 m and 5-18° C in upper layers in summer, covered by ice in winter, high oxygen concentrations down to bottom throughout the year and low plankton density. This was the only fish inhabiting the lake prior to the introduction of Gobio holurus and Squalius cephalus. Young juveniles feed predominantly on gammarids, chironomid larvae; larger juveniles and adults prey on molluscs, benthic invertebrates and fry; largest individuals are mostly piscivorous, especially since the introduction of Gobio holurus. Spawns in lake, close to underwater springs. Large-sized individuals probably undertake migration to tributaries. Spawning extends over almost entire year. Threatened due to the introduction of Squalius cephalus, which feeds on its fry (Ref. 59043).
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Distribution

Range Description

Russia: Lake Kezenoi-am (formerly Eizenam (Daghestan)) in northern Caucasus at 1870 m above sea level. In 1963, introduced in Lake Mochokh (Daghestan), probably established.
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Europe: Lake Kezenoi-am (formerly Eizenam) (Daghestan) in northern Caucasus, Russia. Introduced in 1963 in Lake Mochokh (Daghestan), probably established.
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Russia.
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

113 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043)); max. published weight: 17.0 kg (Ref. 59043)
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Diagnostic Description

Distinguished from congeners in Caspian Sea basin by having the following unique characters: 16-21 short and broad gill rakers, without denticles, in large individuals sometimes slightly expanded at tip; maxilla not reaching posterior margin of eye; and bright coloration comprising of 10-30 relatively large (6-7 mm in diameter) carmine red spots above lateral line, small black spots on back, red spots on dorsal, upper caudal lobe, and adipose fins (Ref. 59043).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Habitat:
Lake Kezenoi-am is a mountain lake, 2.4 km²,with a maximum depth of 74 m,, temperatures about 5°C below 20 m and 5-18°C in upper layers in summer, covered by ice in winter, high oxygen concentrations down to bottom year-round and low plankton density. Spawns in lake, close to underwater springs; large-sized form probably migrates to tributaries. Prior to the introduction of Gobio holurus and Squalius cephalus, S. ezenami was the only fish in the lake.

Biology:
Lacustrine, migrates to tributaries. Two forms are known: small-size (adults 160-260 mm SL, 200-350 g) and large-size (adults 380-1130 mm SL, over 1 kg). Males reproduce for the first time at two years, females at three. Spawning period extends over almost entire year. Young juveniles feed mostly on gammarids, chironomid larvae; larger juveniles and adults feed on molluscs, benthic invertebrates and fry; largest individuals are mostly piscivorous, especially since the introduction of G. holurus.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.

Reviewer/s
Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)

Contributor/s

Justification
The species is known only from Lake Kezenoi-am (2.4 km²) in the northern Caucasus where it is being impacted by the introduction of Squalius cephalus, which feeds on its fry. Prior to the introduction of Gobio holurus and Squalius cephalus, S. ezenami was the only fish in the lake. Levels of harvesting are unknown as the area is a war zone (Chechnya).
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Population

Population
No information.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Introduction of alien species (Squalius cephalus), which feeds on its fry. The region is hard to access as it is a war zone (Chechnya) so levels of harvesting are unknown.
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Critically Endangered (CR) (B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v))
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
No information.
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Wikipedia

Salmo ezenami

Salmo ezenami is a critically endangered freshwater salmonid fish, endemic to Lake Kezenoi-Am (Lake Eizenam) in Northern Caucasus.[1]

The only native occurrence, in Lake Kezenoi-Am in Chechnya at the border of Dagestan, is in a cold alpine lake (area 2.4 km², maximum depth 74 m, 1870 m altitude). In addition, the species has been introduced to another lake in Dagestan, Lake Mochokh, probably successfully.[2]

Salmo ezenami used to be the only fish species in Lake Kezenoi-Am. However, two other species, the European chub and Gobio holurus have been introduced, and present a threat by eating the fry of Salmo.[2]

Salmo ezenami spawns in the lake, close to underwater springs. Adult fish also probably migrate to tributaries. There are separate small-sized (adults 160–260 mm) and large-sized forms (380–1130 mm). Young prey on gammarids and chironomids; adults also eat molluscs and fishes, after the introduction of nonnative species.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Salmo ezenami". Fishbase. Retrieved 2009-03-31. 
  2. ^ a b c Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Salmo ezenami. In: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Downloaded on 5 April 2010.
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