Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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iIn the western Atlantic, outer Nova Scotia and the Gulf of St. Lawrence south to Florida, the Bahamas, the Gulf of Mexico and Venezuela
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Range Description

This species is present in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean and Black Sea. It is replaced by Scomber japonicus in the Indo-Pacific. In the Atlantic, the range of this species is not continuous between the east and west and north and south. These should be considered separate stocks or populations.
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Atlantic Ocean. Warm water; eastern and western coasts. Replaced by Scomber japonicus in the Indo-Pacific.
  • Collette, B.B. 2003 Scombridae. Mackerels and tunas. p. 1836-1857. In K.E. Carpenter (ed.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Vol. 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals. (Ref. 52976)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=52976&speccode=54736 External link.
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Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Atlantic in warm waters.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is a coastal pelagic species, and to a lesser extent epipelagic to mesopelagic over the continental slope (Collette and Nauen 1983). Schooling by size is well developed and initiates at approximately 3 cm (Collette and Nauen 1983). It may also form schools with Sarda species, bonitos, jacks, and clupeids (Collette 1995).

This species feeds on small pelagic fishes such as anchovy, pilchard, sardinella, sprat, silversides, and also pelagic invertebrates. In Mauritania, it is reported to stay near the bottom during the day and goes up to the open water at night (Maigret and Ly 1986). It feeds on copepods and other crustaceans, fishes and squids (Collette and Nauen 1983).

This species may live to 13 years (Carvalho 2002), and has a length at 50% maturity of approximately 18 cm corresponding to an age of about two years (Hattour 2000).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

pelagic-neritic; brackish; marine
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Depth range based on 4 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 62

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 62
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Pelagic species, occurring both at the surface and in deep waters (Ref. 26335).
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Diseases and Parasites

Golvanorhynchus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Scomber colias

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 15 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCCGCTGATTTTTCTCAACAAACCATAAAGACATCGGCACCCTCTACCTAGTATTCGGTGCATGAGCTGGAATAGTTGGCACGGCCTTA---AGCTTGCTTATCCGAGCTGAACTAAGTCAACCAGGGTCCCTTCTCGGCGAC---GACCAAATCTACAACGTAATTGTTACGGCTCACGCCTTCGTTATAATCTTCTTTTTAGTAATGCCAGTTATGATTGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTGATCCCCCTAATG---ATCGGAGCCCCCGACATGGCATTTCCCCGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTTCTGCCCCCATCTCTCCTGCTGCTCCTGTCTTCTTCGGCAGTTGAAGCCGGTGCTGGAACTGGCTGAACAGTTTATCCTCCCCTCGCTGGGAACCTGGCACACGCCGGGGCATCAGTTGATTTA---ACCATCTTCTCACTCCACCTAGCAGGTGTTTCCTCAATCCTTGGGGCCATTAACTTCATCACAACAATCATTAACATAAAACCTGCAGGTGTATCCCAATACCAAACCCCTCTGTTCGTCTGAGCAGTCCTAATTACAGCTGTCCTTCTCCTTCTATCTCTACCAGTTCTTGCTGCC---GGCATTACAATGCTCCTAACAGACCGAAATCTAAATACTACCTTCTTCGACCCTGGGGGAGGGGGAGACCCCATTCTTTACCAACACCTCTTCTGATTCTTCGGCCACCCCGAAGTCTACATTCTTATTCTTCCAGGATTCGGAATAATCTCCCATATCGTTGCCTATTACGCCGGTAAAAAA---GAACCCTTCGGCTACATGGGTATGGTATGAGCCATGATGGCCATCGGCCTACTAGGCTTTATTGTATGAGCCCATCACATGTTTACAGTCGGAATAGACGTAGACACACGAGCGTATTTCACATCCGCAACTATAATCATCGCAATTCCAACGGGCGTAAAAGTCTTTAGCTGACTT---GCAACTCTCCACGGAG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Scomber colias

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 35
Specimens with Barcodes: 46
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Collette, B., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Graves, J., Viera Hazin, F.H., Juan Jorda, M., Kada, O., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Teixeira Lessa, R.P. & Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E.

Reviewer/s
Russell, B. & Polidoro, B.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread and abundant in many parts of its range. The species is targeted mainly in the eastern Atlantic portion of its range. It is fast-growing and matures at 2–3 years of age but is relatively long-lived, typically 8–10 years. The greatest landings reported are from the eastern central Atlantic where the landings have fluctuated, although an assessment by STECF (2009) determined that the stock is fully-exploited. However, there is no evidence of long term declines. The species is listed as Least Concern. However, there are some indications of regional declines and cases of local depletions should be monitored closely.
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Population

Population
This species is common throughout the Mediterranean and is abundant particularly in the southern part.

Worldwide reported landings for this species show steadily increasing catches from 1950 to mid-1980s where catches peaked at nearly 40,000 mt. Since then, there are wide fluctuations with a general decreasing trend but recent years show another peak around 23,000 mt (FAO 2009). One problem with these statistics is that many countries are not reporting their catches.

Since 1991, total Chub Mackerel catch over the Atlantic has shown an increasing trend, reaching a maximum of more than 262,000 t in 2008. To the south of Cape Blanc where the European fleet operates, total Chub Mackerel catch increased over the period 1990–1996, reaching around 100,000 t. It then decreased to reach the low level of around 2,000 t in 1999. Catch then progressively increased until 2003 when a record of 133,000 t was recorded. Since then catches have heavily declined with 38,000 t recorded in 2005 and 33,000 t in 2006, reaching around 80,000 t and 60,000 t in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Assessments were carried out by applying a Schaefer dynamic surplus production model and ICA. Results showed the stocks to be Fully Exploited (STECF 2009).

Since 2003 there has been at least a 50% decline in catches based on the Fully Exploited status in the eastern Atlantic (STECF 2009), although there is no information on current effort. In Argentina this used to be an important commercial species, however, this fishery no longer exists.

In the Mediterranean, this is a common and locally abundant species that has fairly high, fluctuating catches. There has been a steady decline in landings of this species since the 1980s which is confirmed by anecdotal evidence from fishery experts. However, within the last 10 years (generation length of three years) the fluctuations have been inconclusive in terms of any trend. Current exploitation levels are intense with technological creeping (advances) and because of the steady decline over the past 20 years this species is regionally considered Near Threatened based on population declines suspected to be approaching 30% based on A2d. Recent decreases in population trends may be parallel with recent increases in Scomber scombrus.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is caught mostly with purse seines, often together with sardines, and sometimes using light trolling lines, gill nets, traps, beach seines and midwater trawls. In the Mediterranean the technology used to catch this species is becoming more sophisticated.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There is a minimum size limit of 18 cm for all Scomber species in the European Union and Turkey. In the Mediterranean, a targeted management plan for this species is needed to reverse long term declining trends. Better data on fishing and fishing effort will help to further assess this species in the future.
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Wikipedia

Atlantic chub mackerel

Atlantic chub mackerel (Scomber colias) is a pelagic schooling species of mackerel found in the Atlantic Ocean, also in the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. It was originally thought to be a subspecies of the Chub mackerel Scomber japonicus colias.

Description[edit]

The Atlantic chub mackerel is a long, streamlined fish with a deeply forked tail. The first dorsal fin has nine or ten spines and is separated from the second dorsal fin by a space at least as long as its base. The origin of the anal fin is directly below or just behind the origin of the second dorsal fin. This fish is silvery in colour, the upper surface has oblique zigzagging lines while the belly is paler and spotted or marked with wavy lines. [2]

Fisheries[edit]

This fish is particularly abundant in the Eastern Mediterranean. There two variants are distinguished: in the late summer and autumn, after it has bred, the fish is fat and roe-filled, whereas in the late winter and spring it is very lean, almost emaciated. The Greek names for the two forms are koliós and tsíros, respectively. They are usually roasted, although the former form is often packed in salt for later consumption. The fish releases its own oil into the salt packing and acquires a very long shelf life. In the islands of the Aegean it is a particularly popular delicacy, under the name of goúna: fresh-caught mackerel is split open at the belly, eviscerated, and left to dry flesh-side up in the sun for one day. The same evening it is very briefly seared over barbecue fire and then served with lemon juice.

Status[edit]

This fish has a wide range and is abundant over parts of that range. Although it is heavily fished in places, the population seems relatively stable and the IUCN has listed this species as being of "Least Concern".[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Collette, B., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Graves, J., Viera Hazin, F.H., Juan Jorda, M., Kada, O., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Teixeira Lessa, R.P. & Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E. (2011). "Scomber colias". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  2. ^ "Species fact sheets: Scomber japonicus (Houttuyn, 1782)". FAO. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Scomber colias formerly was considered to be conspecific with S. japonicus. Nelson et al. (2004) listed the two as distinct species.

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