Overview

Comprehensive Description

References

Baird RC. 1971. The Systematics, Distribution, and Zoogeography of the Marine Hatchetfishes (family Sternoptychidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zooology 142(1):1–128.

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Data on Catalog of Fishes

View data on Catalog of Fishes here.

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Type locality

18°29'45"N, 65°25'50"W to 18°35'30"N, 65°23'54"W, Caribbean Sea, depth 200-400 fathoms.

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Type specimen(s)

Holotype: USNM 102979

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Main Reference

Baird RC. 1971. The Systematics, Distribution, and Zoogeography of the Marine Hatchetfishes (family Sternoptychidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zooology 142(1):1–128.

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Description

Dorsal-fin rays 14–16 (rarely 17); anal-fin rays (rarely 15) 16–17 (rarely 18); pectoral-fin rays (rarely 12) 13–14 (rarely 15); gill rakers 20–23 (rarely 24); vertebrae 32–33. Large to giant species, often exceeds 70 mm SL; body relatively broad, tapering evenly to narrow but short caudal peduncle, its greatest depth greater than length of subcaudal photophores; posttemporal and dorsal spines short (less than one-fourth eye diameter); preopercle spine very short, triangulate; abdominal keel scales extend slightly below ventral body margin; first supra-anal photophore markedly lower than second; first supra-abdominal photophore raised well above other two, second and third supra-abdominals usually about same height; jaws medium to large; teeth minute; gill rakers medium to long, spinose on internal surface; in preservative, pigment dark dorsally; dark pigment bar extends toward but never reaches midline; lateral border of dark dorsal pigment straight from dorsal spine to caudal peduncle; dark pigment spots lateral midline, pigment striations present on trunk.

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Distribution

Caribbean Sea in the vicinity of the continental slope of South America, and off Puerto Rico. Also in the Gulf of Mexico to Grand Bank.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Western Central Atlantic: Caribbean Sea in the vicinity of the continental slope of South America, and off Puerto Rico. Also in the Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 27768).
  • Harold, A.S. 1994 A taxonomic revision of the sternoptychid genus Polyipnus (Teleostei: Stomiiformes) with an analysis of phylogenetic relationships. Bull. Mar. Sci. 54(2):428-534. (Ref. 26382)
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Restricted to the western North Atlantic; abundant in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico from the coast of Venezuela to the straits of Florida; off the outer islands of the West lndies and less abundantly along the east Coast of North America; a single capture bas been reported as far north as the Gulf of Maine.

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Western Atlantic: Caribbean Sea and off Greater Antilles.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12 - 16; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 16 - 17
  • Harold, A.S. 1994 A taxonomic revision of the sternoptychid genus Polyipnus (Teleostei: Stomiiformes) with an analysis of phylogenetic relationships. Bull. Mar. Sci. 54(2):428-534. (Ref. 26382)
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Size

Maximum size: 81.3 mm SL
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Max. size

8.1 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 26382))
  • Harold, A.S. 1994 A taxonomic revision of the sternoptychid genus Polyipnus (Teleostei: Stomiiformes) with an analysis of phylogenetic relationships. Bull. Mar. Sci. 54(2):428-534. (Ref. 26382)
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Exceed 70 mm SL.

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Diagnostic Description

Three supraanal photophores, very short temporal spine (Ref. 37473).
  • Harold, A.S. 1994 A taxonomic revision of the sternoptychid genus Polyipnus (Teleostei: Stomiiformes) with an analysis of phylogenetic relationships. Bull. Mar. Sci. 54(2):428-534. (Ref. 26382)
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Post-temporal spine simple, bearing no basal spines; lateral edge of post-temporal-supracleithrum smooth; keel scales with smooth ventral surfaces; supraanal photophores separate, usually raised well above anal group. Post-temporal spine short, its length less than one-fourth the diameter of orbit; anal photophore number 7 to 9; body robust, less than 1.9 times body depth; first supra-anal photophore markedly lower than second. Teeth absent on posterior vomerine shaft; second supra-anal photophore even with or raised above third; supra-abdominal photophores nonsymmetrical, first photophore raised well above other two. Gill rakers to 24; dorsal rays 14 to 16; lower margin of dark dorsal pigment straight from dorsal spine to caudal peduncle. Anal pterygiophore margin essentially straight; anal photophore number 9 (rarely 10); greater than 3.7 times body depth at end of dorsal

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Type Information

Paratype for Polyipnus asteroides Schultz
Catalog Number: USNM 86131
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1917
Locality: Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
Vessel: Grampus
  • Paratype: Schultz, L. P. 1938. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 86 (3047): 138, 44.
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Type for Polyipnus asteroides Schultz
Catalog Number: USNM 102979
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Year Collected: 1933
Locality: Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles, Caribbean Sea, Atlantic
Depth (m): 366 to 732
Vessel: Caroline
  • Type: Schultz, L. P. 1938. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 86 (3047): 138, 44.
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Paratype for Polyipnus asteroides Schultz
Catalog Number: USNM 102978
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1933
Locality: Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles, Caribbean Sea, Atlantic
Depth (m): 457 to 585
Vessel: Caroline
  • Paratype: Schultz, L. P. 1938. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 86 (3047): 138, 44.
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Ecology

Habitat

nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Found to depths of 500 m.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

bathypelagic; marine; depth range 366 - 732 m (Ref. 26382)
  • Harold, A.S. 1994 A taxonomic revision of the sternoptychid genus Polyipnus (Teleostei: Stomiiformes) with an analysis of phylogenetic relationships. Bull. Mar. Sci. 54(2):428-534. (Ref. 26382)
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Depth range based on 103 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 77 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 106 - 658
  Temperature range (°C): 5.258 - 18.453
  Nitrate (umol/L): 3.423 - 30.828
  Salinity (PPS): 33.637 - 36.286
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.686 - 5.674
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.534 - 2.179
  Silicate (umol/l): 4.334 - 23.354

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 106 - 658

Temperature range (°C): 5.258 - 18.453

Nitrate (umol/L): 3.423 - 30.828

Salinity (PPS): 33.637 - 36.286

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.686 - 5.674

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.534 - 2.179

Silicate (umol/l): 4.334 - 23.354
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Polyipnus asteroides

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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