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Myliobatis californica, commonly known as bat rays, are typically found in sandy and muddy bays and estuaries, rock reefs and kelp beds from southern Oregon to the Gulf of California (Hopkins 1993). They have a flat and triangular shape (Martin and Cailliet 1988), with a whip-like tail and venomous spines (up to 2 or 3) at its base. These animals regularly feed on flat muddy bottom animals like clams and echiuroid worms (Talent 1982). The bat ray has been found in depths reaching 354 ft (107 m). The largest bat ray on record weighed 240 pounds (108 kg). They can reach up to a width of six feet (Love 2011), and can live to be at least 23 years of age (Martin and Cailliet 1988). Bat rays are generally solitary animals, except for when they are found together during feeding and mating (Martin and Cailliet 1988, Hopkins 1993). Adult bat rays reproduce annually, with a mating season in the spring and summer months (Martin and Cailliet 1988).
Hopkins, T. 1993. The Physiological Ecology of Bat Rays, Myliobatis californica, in Tomales Bay, California. PhD Dissertation, University of California, Davis. Pp 11-80
Love, M. S. 2011. Certainly more than you want to know about the fishes of the Pacific Coast. Really Big Press, Santa Barbara, California.
Martin, L. K., and G.M. Calliet. 1988. Aspects of the Reproduction of the Bat Ray, Myliobatis california, in Central California. Copeia. No. 3: 754-761.
Talent, L.G. 1982. Food habits of gray smoothhound, Mustelus californicus, the brown smoothhound, Mustelus henlei, the shovelnose guitarfish, Rhinobatos productus, and the bay ray, Myliobatus californica, in Elkhorn Slough, California. Calififornia Fish and Game 68:224-234