Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Common species. Free-living, fairly deep. Assumed to feed on small invertebrates and fish (Ref. 34024). Feed on small bottom animals (Ref. 35388).
  • Nielsen, J.G., D.M. Cohen, D.F. Markle and C.R. Robins 1999 Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(18):178p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 34024)
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Distribution

Northeast Atlantic: coasts of southern Norway, western Denmark, and around British Isles. Reported from Iceland (Ref. 12462). Misidentified as a Carapus in literature.
  • Trott, L.B. and J.E. Olney 1986 Carapidae. p. 1172-1176. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4741)
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Eastern North Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 42 - 45; Analsoft rays: 47 - 49
  • Whitehead, P.J.P., M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) 1986 Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vols. I-III:1473 p. (Ref. 232)
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm TL
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Max. size

30.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4741))
  • Trott, L.B. and J.E. Olney 1986 Carapidae. p. 1172-1176. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4741)
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Diagnostic Description

Eel-like, shallow body depth; 1 to several symphyseal fangs on dentary and premaxilla; lacking cardiform teeth, pelvic fins, and swim bladder rocker bone; a patch of ridges posteriorly on the ventral surface of the swim bladder (Ref. 34024). Pigmented eye diameter greater than 16% head length (Ref. 34024). Pre-dorsal bone present; maxilla extends well behind orbit; precaudal vertebrae 25-29 (Ref. 232). Reddish with silvery abdomen, operculum and iris; dark markings on head and median edges (Ref. 232).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P., M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) 1986 Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vols. I-III:1473 p. (Ref. 232)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 52 - 403 m (Ref. 10704)
  • Williams, J.T. and R.L. Shipp 1982 A new species of the genus Echiodon (Pisces: Carapidae) from the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Copeia 1982(4):845-851. (Ref. 10704)
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Depth range based on 332 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 298 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 48 - 500
  Temperature range (°C): 6.777 - 11.889
  Nitrate (umol/L): 6.113 - 12.900
  Salinity (PPS): 34.902 - 35.600
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.123 - 6.310
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.432 - 0.837
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.871 - 5.635

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 48 - 500

Temperature range (°C): 6.777 - 11.889

Nitrate (umol/L): 6.113 - 12.900

Salinity (PPS): 34.902 - 35.600

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.123 - 6.310

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.432 - 0.837

Silicate (umol/l): 1.871 - 5.635
 
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Depth: 0 - 200m.
Recorded at 200 meters.

Habitat: benthopelagic. Free-living, fairly deep. Assumed to feed on small invertebrates and fish.
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Trophic Strategy

Common species. Free-living. Assumed to feed on small invertebrates and fish (Ref. 4741, 34024). Feed on small bottom animals (Ref. 35388).
  • Trott, L.B. and J.E. Olney 1986 Carapidae. p. 1172-1176. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4741)
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
  • Nielsen, J.G., D.M. Cohen, D.F. Markle and C.R. Robins 1999 Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(18):178p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 34024)
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