Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults feed on hydroids, worms, mollusks, and brittle stars (Ref. 6885). Marketed frozen and eaten fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
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Biology

An abundant flatfish in the Bering Sea, present but less common in the Chukchi Sea
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Eyed side brown; blind side snowy white, except pale yellow in juveniles and small adults; Median fins yellowish; narrow black line along base of dorsal and anal fins; Lateral line with high arch over pectoral fin; Ctenoid (spiny) scales on eyed side with 1 spinule and only a few with 2 spinules, vs. 3-10 spinules per scale in Sakhalin sole, L. sakhalinensis.
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Northern North and adjacent Arctic.
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North Pacific: Korea and the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea, and Barkley Sound, Canada. Reported from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea (Ref. 28503).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 61 - 69; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 48 - 58; Vertebrae: 39 - 40
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Size

Max. size

49.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 56370)); max. published weight: 1,700 g (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 34 years (Ref. 55701)
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Maximum size: 470 mm ---
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Diagnostic Description

Dorsal origin above posterior part of eye. Caudal rounded at edges. Pectorals bluntly pointed.
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Type Information

Type for Limanda aspera
Catalog Number: USNM 75668
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Gilbert, J. Snyder, M. Sindo, H. Heath, C. Burke, H. Torrey & A. Clark
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Korsokov market, Aniwa Bay, Saghalin Island., Sakhalin Island, Russia, Aniwa Bay, Sea of Okhotsk, Pacific
Vessel: Albatross
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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Depth: 10 - 600m.
From 10 to 600 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 0 - 700 m (Ref. 50593), usually ? - 91 m (Ref. 2850)
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Depth range based on 155 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 56 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 360
  Temperature range (°C): -0.767 - 8.005
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.142 - 37.718
  Salinity (PPS): 30.327 - 33.811
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.565 - 7.923
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.645 - 3.262
  Silicate (umol/l): 12.816 - 89.836

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 360

Temperature range (°C): -0.767 - 8.005

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.142 - 37.718

Salinity (PPS): 30.327 - 33.811

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.565 - 7.923

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.645 - 3.262

Silicate (umol/l): 12.816 - 89.836
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Subarctic-arctic faunal regions; Benthic, from shallow waters to depth of 600 m, typically < 150 m, on mud, sand, and mixed substrate; Near-bottom temperatures of -1.5 to 13°C
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Eat crustaceans, worms, molluscs, hydroids, brittle stars, other benthic invertebrates, and fishes; Ascend to near surface in summer to feed on ctenophores, mysids, and euphausiids
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Migrate from overwintering grounds in deep water to nearshore waters to spawn in summer; Eggs and larvae pelagic; Egg diameter 0.76-0.85 mm; Number of eggs 1,300,000-3,300,000; Juveniles remain in nearshore nursery areas for first few years, disperse to offshore waters at 3-5 years of age; Females mature at 23-24 cm and 6-7 years, and males at 20 cm and 4-5 years; Live at least 13 years
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Limanda aspera

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 12 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCCTCTATCTCGTATTGGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTGGGGACAGGTCTA---AGTCTGCTCATTCGAGCAGAACTCAGCCAACCTGGGGCTCTCCTGGGAGAC---GATCAAATTTATAACGTGATCGTTACCGCACACGCCTTTGTAATAATCTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATCGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTTATCCCACTAATG---ATCGGGGCCCCTGATATGGCATTCCCTCGAATGAACAACATGAGTTTCTGACTTCTGCCTCCATCCTTTCTTCTCCTCCTAGCCTCTTCAGGCGTAGAAGCCGGGGCTGGAACTGGGTGAACTGTATATCCTCCGTTAGCTGGAAATCTAGCACACGCTGGAGCATCCGTAGACCTA---ACAATCTTTTCTCTTCACCTTGCCGGGATTTCATCAATCCTGGGAGCAATCAACTTTATTACCACAATCATCAACATGAAACCTACAGCAGTAACTATGTACCAAATTCCACTATTCGTGTGAGCCGTACTAATTACAGCCGTTCTTCTCCTCCTCTCCCTTCCAGTCTTAGCCGCT---GGCATCACAATGCTACTGACAGACCGCAACCTAAACACAACTTTCTTTGACCCTGCCGGAGGGGGTACCCCCATCCTCTAC------CTATTCTGGTTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Limanda aspera

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 16
Specimens with Barcodes: 25
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Limanda cf. aspera

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: medium; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Wikipedia

Yellowfin sole

The yellowfin sole, Limanda aspera, is a flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae. It is a demersal fish that lives on soft, sandy bottoms at depths of up to 700 metres (2,300 ft), though it is most commonly found at depths of around 91 metres (299 ft). Its native habitat is the temperate waters of the northern Pacific, from Korea and the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea and Barkley Sound on the west coast of Canada. Males grow up to 49 cm (19 in) in length, though the common length is around 33.5 cm (13.2 in). The maximum recorded weight is 1.7 kg (3.7 lb), and the maximum recorded lifespan is 26 years.[1][2]

Description[edit]

Limanda aspera.jpg

The yellowfin sole has a deep body, with a small mouth, moderately large and closely situated eyes, and a slightly pronounced snout. The upper side of the body is olive to brown in colour, with dark mottling, and dorsal and anal fins are yellowish on both sides of the body, with faint dark bars and a narrow dark line at the base. Scales are rough on both sides of the body.[2][3]

Taxonomy[edit]

The yellowfin sole was originally described as Pleuronectes asper by Pallas in 1814, and subsequently as Limanda asprella by Hubbs in 1915.[3]

Role in ecosystem[edit]

The yellowfin sole occupies a moderately high trophic level in the food chain. The diet of the yellowfin sole consists mainly of zoobenthic organisms, including polychaetes and amphipods such as hydroids, worms, mollusks, and brittle stars.[1][2] Yellowfin sole are known to be prey fish for sculpin, Pacific halibut, Pacific cod, and arrowtooth flounder.[1][2]

Reproduction[edit]

Female yellowfin sole reach reproductive maturity when they reach around 30 cm (12 in) in length (usually around 10.5 years old), and spawn following migration to shallow waters during spring and summer. Yellowfin sole have high reproductive potential, with females producing 1-3 million eggs.[2]

Commercial fishing[edit]

Yellowfin sole is fished commercially, primarily by demersal trawl fishing. Having recovered from high fishing rates in the 1960s and 1970s, it is currently not considered to be overfished, and the biomass of yellowfin sole in the Bering Sea is estimated to be high and stable, above its target level. Catch has averaged 94,000 tons from 1998 to 2010, with the 2008 catch of 148,894 tons representing the highest annual catch in 11 years. Landings are limited by crab and halibut bycatch limits.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Ed. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly (6 October 2010). "Limanda aspera". Fishbase. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Yellowfin sole". FishWatch. National Marine Fisheries Service. 2009-10-29. Archived from the original on 2010-05-28. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  3. ^ a b "Limanda aspera". Species Fact Sheets. Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
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