Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits rocky or coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Juveniles in channels and on inshore reefs (Ref. 9710). Feeds primarily on sponges (Ref. 9710). Small juveniles do well in aquariums once they begin to accept food.
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Distribution

Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Bahamas and off southern Florida, USA to the Gulf of Mexico. Also to Yucatan, Mexico
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Range Description

This West Atlantic species has been recorded from Bermuda, the Bahamas, Florida to Yucatán, including the Gulf of Mexico, and as a vagrant north to New Jersey (Burgess 2002). This species has been recorded at depths between 2-92 m, but is most common between 5-25 m.
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Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Bahamas and off southern Florida, USA to the Gulf of Mexico. Also to Yucatan, Mexico (Ref. 26938).
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Western Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 450 mm ---
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Max. size

45.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4858))
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Diagnostic Description

Soft parts of dorsal and anal fins and caudal fins have wide yellow margins. Dark spot on forehead lacks electric blue ring. Juveniles blue, banded, with last prominent band straight (Ref. 26938). The pectorals are blue basally, clear distally, with a broad yellow band separating the two colors; the pelvic fins are light yellow (Ref. 13442).
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Type Information

Cotype for Holacanthus ciliaris bermudensis
Catalog Number: USNM 154852
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): G. Goode
Locality: Bermudas:, Bermuda, Atlantic
  • Cotype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits coral and rocky reefs. Feeds primarily on sponges and small benthic invertebrates (Burgess 2002).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 2 - 92 m (Ref. 9710), usually 5 - 25 m (Ref. 9761)
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Depth range based on 216 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 182 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 7.1 - 78.5
  Temperature range (°C): 22.695 - 27.194
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.501 - 2.736
  Salinity (PPS): 35.661 - 36.401
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.356 - 4.813
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.085 - 0.194
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 2.001

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 7.1 - 78.5

Temperature range (°C): 22.695 - 27.194

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.501 - 2.736

Salinity (PPS): 35.661 - 36.401

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.356 - 4.813

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.085 - 0.194

Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 2.001
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 2 - 92m.
From 2 to 92 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits rocky or coral reefs. Juveniles in channels and on inshore reefs. Feeds primarily on sponges.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Holacanthus bermudensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Pyle, R., Myers, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T.

Reviewer/s
Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern, as this species is common throughout its relatively wide range and there are no apparent threats.
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Population

Population
This species is common in coastal reefs with turbid waters in Florida, and in deep reefs in the Gulf of Mexico.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats

There appear to be no major threats to this species. Collection is limited and is not considered to be impacting the global population.

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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

Present in several conservation areas throughout its range. The collection and sale of this species in Bermuda is prohibited by law.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Bermuda blue angelfish

The Bermuda blue angelfish, Holacanthus bermudensis, is a species of marine angelfish of the family Pomacanthidae. Holocanthus bermudensis should not be confused with Holocanthus ciliaris, or queen angelfish, despite very similar appearances. They are two separate species.

Description[edit]

A Bermuda blue angelfish is blue-brown in color with green hues and bright yellow on the tip of its tail and fins. Their young, however, have a completely different coloration. A young blue angelfish is dark blue with a yellow tail and some yellow on its fins. It also has vertical blue bars on its body. As it ages, the bars fade away and the body color becomes lighter and some browns and greens are added.

The Bermuda blue angelfish can grow up to 18 inches in length. It has a large mouth and comb-like teeth. It is often collected for aquariums. This fish occasionally breeds with the queen angelfish, which is very similar to it. This hybrid is called the townsend angelfish. An adult blue angelfish can produce a loud thumping sound that warns predators and also startles divers.[citation needed]

Habitat[edit]

It is found in the western Atlantic part of from Bermuda, the Bahamas and Florida to the Gulf of Mexico, and also to Yucatan, Mexico.

The Bermuda blue angelfish tends to stay near rocks, coral, and sponges at depths of between 6½ and 300 feet (2–92 m). It also lives around boulders, in caves, and crevices in shallow water. Young blue angelfish tend to live in bays and channels.[citation needed]

Diet[edit]

The Bermuda blue angelfish feeds primarily on sponges, but also feeds on tunicates, jellyfish, and corals as well as plankton and algae. Young blue angelfish eat parasites on other fish at "cleaning stations".[citation needed] Also 95% of their diet consists on sponges. Although in home aquariums, aquarists have been successful in providing the Queen Angelfish a diet of meaty and algae based foods

Reproduction[edit]

The Bermuda blue angelfish has no specific breeding period, so they breed year round. When they do breed, the female can release from 25 to 75 thousand eggs each day, totaling up to 10 million eggs each breeding cycle. The eggs are transparent and contain a drop of oil for buoyancy. The eggs hatch shortly after, and the fish that emerge are in a pre-larva state and they do not have guts, eyes, or fins, and are attached to a yolk sac. After two days, the yolk sac is gone and the fish are in a larva state and eat plankton. These fish grow very fast.

Lifespan[edit]

The Bermuda blue angelfish can live up to 20 years.[citation needed]

Status[edit]

This species is not endangered.

Distribution[edit]

The Bermuda blue angelfish ranges along the Tropical Eastern Atlantic, common in Florida, and rarer further south in the Caribbean.

In the aquarium[edit]

Although, the Bermuda blue angelfish is considered to be moderate in difficulty to keep in captivity, it is ill-suited for the inexperienced aquarist. They are an aggressive species that require a large aquarium. Most aquarists recommend a minimum tank size anywhere from 150 on up to 180 gallons. The Bermuda blue angelfish will harass other fish without discrimination, particularly new additions to the aquarium. It should be the last fish added to any system. It is not a reef safe fish, and larger specimens may nip at or consume corals, particularly stony or soft ones, and ornamental invertebrates.

References[edit]

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