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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: seahorse (English), caballito (Espanol)
 
Hippocampus ingens Girard, 1858


Pacific seahorse



Neck curved, with head at about right angle to body; snout elongate; coronet (crown-like structure on top of head) moderately high (lower in large males), tilted back, with 5 points, a high plate at front; promintent eye spine; a prominent down-pointed round cheek spine; tubercles generally well developed, but becoming obscure in large males; male with a slight keel on chest; body rings 11-12 + 38-40; dorsal fin large, its base elevated, 19-21 rays; pectorals small, 15-17 rays; anal fin small, 4 rays; tail prehensile, curlable, without a tail fin ; brood pouch on trunk.

Color variable according to its surroundings (weed, rock, coral, etc.); generally various shades of red, yellow, tan, brown, grey, black, or green; often with small blackish and white spots or whitish cross bands and lines.


Size: grows to about 30 cm.

Inhabits weed beds, sea-whips and gorgonians. Evidently also associates with flotsam because it has been collected at the surface and from the stomachs of tunas.

Depth: 1-60 m.

Southern California through the Gulf of California to Chile, including Cocos, Malpelo and the Galapagos.
   
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Biology

Nocturnal. Occur in offshore waters, mostly captured by dredging at 10 m or deeper. Occasionally caught at surface. Are often camouflaged within the branches of gorgonians and black coral trees where they are seen to curl their tail around the branches (Ref. 5227). Have been found in the stomachs of Pacific yellowfin tuna and bluefin tuna (Ref. 30915). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from Southern California through the Gulf of California to Peru, including the Cocos, Malpelo and Galápagos Islands (Anon. 2002).
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: San Diego in California, USA to Peru including the Galapagos Islands. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies. Reported from the San Francisco Bay by Alexander Agassiz (Ron Fritzsche, pers.comm. 08/09).
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 60 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 1821
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Size

Length max (cm): 30.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm TL
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Max. size

30.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850))
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Diagnostic Description

Description: (based on 19 specimens): Adult height: 13.0-19.0cm. Rings: 11+39 (38-40)Snout length: 2.3-2.4 (2.1-2.5) in head length. Dorsal fin rays: 19 (18-21) covering 2+1 rings. Pectoral fin rays: 16 (15-17). Coronet: medium-high, tilted backwards with five well-defined points, sharp edges or flanges at top. Spines: variable, from low rounded bumps to well-developed blunt-tipped spines. Other distinctive characters: prominent, long (drooping), rounded, single cheek spines; prominent eye spine (may be broad or almost double); males commonly have a prominent keel; sexually mature females often have a dark patch below the anal fin.Color pattern: reddish-maroon, grey, yellow and gold; various shades of brown; may have fine white light and dark markings running vertically down body.
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Type Information

Type for Hippocampus ingens Girard
Catalog Number: USNM 82063
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Tweedlie
Locality: Chame Point, Panama, Panama, Pacific
  • Type:
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Paratype for Hippocampus ingens Girard
Catalog Number: USNM 82039
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Tweedlie
Year Collected: 1912
Locality: Chame Point, Panama, Pacific
  • Paratype:
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Paratype for Hippocampus ingens Girard
Catalog Number: USNM 82037
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Tweedlie
Year Collected: 1912
Locality: Chame Point, Panama., Panama, Pacific
  • Paratype:
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Hippocampus ingens Girard
Catalog Number: USNM 214485
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Photograph
Collector(s): A. Cassidy
Locality: San Diego, Cal., San Diego County, California, United States, Pacific
  • Paralectotype: Fritsche, R. A. 1980. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Fourth Series. 42 (6): 185.; Girard, C. F. 1858. Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. 10: 342.; Syntype: Fritsche, R. A. 1980. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Fourth Series. 42 (6): 185.; Girard, C. F. 1858. Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. 10: 342.
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Lectotype; Syntype for Hippocampus ingens Girard
Catalog Number: USNM 982
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Photograph
Collector(s): A. Cassidy
Locality: San Diego, San Diego County, California, United States, Pacific
  • Lectotype: Fritsche, R. A. 1980. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Fourth Series. 42 (6): 185.; Girard, C. F. 1858. Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. 10: 342.; Syntype: Fritsche, R. A. 1980. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Fourth Series. 42 (6): 185.; Girard, C. F. 1858. Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. 10: 342.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This reef-associated species inhabits weed beds, sea-whips and gorgonians, usually at depths of 1—20 m. It is also known to be associated with flotsam as it has been collected at the surface and from the stomachs of the Pacific Yellowfin Tuna and Bluefin Tuna (Humann and Deloach 1993, Lourie et al. 2004). Maximum recorded depth for this species is 60 m. This species is sometimes caught by tuna purse seiners in the open ocean, possibly from drifting algae.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 0 - 60 m (Ref. 30915), usually 3 - 18 m (Ref. 5227)
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Depth range based on 28 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 120
  Temperature range (°C): 14.206 - 21.311
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.144 - 27.458
  Salinity (PPS): 34.228 - 34.928
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.101 - 5.178
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.352 - 2.067
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.264 - 20.533

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 120

Temperature range (°C): 14.206 - 21.311

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.144 - 27.458

Salinity (PPS): 34.228 - 34.928

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.101 - 5.178

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.352 - 2.067

Silicate (umol/l): 3.264 - 20.533
 
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Depth: 1 - 60m.
From 1 to 60 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Occurs in offshore waters, mostly captured by dredging at 10 m or deeper. Occasionally caught at surface. Are often camouflaged within the branches of gorgonians and black coral trees where they are seen to curl their tail around the branches (Ref. 5227).
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Salinity: Marine, Brackish

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Rocks, Corals, Macroalgae, Reef and soft bottom, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Flotsam

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Also found among sponges (Ref. 52034). Uses its tubelike mouth to siphon food into the mouth (Ref. 28023).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore, Planktivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), zooplankton
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205). Gestation period is 14-15 days depending on temperature (Ref. 30915).
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Brooded, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hippocampus ingens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2cd+4cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Czembor, C.A., Rojas, A. & Acero, A.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A., Ram, M. & Foster, S.

Contributor/s
Wiswedel, S.

Justification

This species is widely distributed in the Eastern Pacific region, but is considered rare throughout its range. Although there is limited information on changes in population numbers of this species, local estimates of population declines of between 50 and 90% have been reported. It is therefore conservatively suspected that population declines of at least 30% haven taken place over a period of 10 years, and that declines are continuing.

Declines result from targeted catch, incidental capture, and habitat degradation from coastal development. Once caught, H. ingens are used throughout Latin America for curios, occasionally in traditional medicine, and in the live aquarium trade. The vast majority are exported internationally for use in traditional medicine. It is therefore listed as Vulnerable under Criterion A2cd+4cd.


History
  • 2003
    Vulnerable
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
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IUCN Red List: Listed, Vulnerable

CITES: Listed, Appendix II
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Population

Population
This species was modestly abundant in the Galapagos, but is now rare. It is not common in Malpelo or Gorgona Island and there is a decreasing abundance suspected in the Gulf of California.

Interviews with shrimp fishers on the Pacific coast of Mexico in 2000 estimated that CPUE of H. ingens had declined from hundreds or thousands caught per month to tens or none (a decline of 75–90% of estimated catch relative to the previous 15–30 years) attributed to overexploitation and trade (Baum and Vincent 2005). Declines were also seen in Ecuador, and were likely due to heavy fishing pressure. Target H. ingens fisheries on the Pacific coasts of Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru have experienced declines of approximately 50% in a similar time period (Baum and Vincent 2005). It is therefore conservative to estimate a decline of just 30% over its entire range over the past three generations, which is suspected to continue, if not accelerate, into the future.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is of commercial importance for the international aquarium trade (Sánchez 1997) the traditional medicinal trades and as curios (Baum and Vincent 2005, Evanson et al. 2011). It is often caught as by-catch in the shrimp fisheries in Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Ecuador, and Peru and surveys of Latin America have estimated that between 199,000 and 380,000 seahorses are incidentally caught on the Pacific coast each year (Baum and Vincent 2005). It is commercially exported from, Peru, Mexico, and the US (UNEP-WCMC 2012). There is also anecdotal evidence from fishers and traders of declines in seahorse availability, which raises concerns for this species (Baum and Vincent 2005).

This species may be particularly susceptible to decline resulting from degradation of habitat from coastal development, tourism and fisheries because they inhabit relatively shallow areas (Lourie et al. 2004) where these threats are most pronounced. Like most seahorses, H. ingens have been shown to have high site fidelity and relatively small broods (Lourie et al. 2004,Saarman et al. 2010), which makes them sensitive to disturbance and limits their potential for recovery.

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Vulnerable (VU) (A2cd+4cd)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on CITES in Appendix II.

There are no known conservation measures for this species however, this species distribution falls into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (WDPA 2006). Hippocampus ingens is listed on Mexico’s NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001 as a species subject to special protection; intentional capture and trade of wild seahorses is prohibited. In Panama, H. ingens are included under the Ministry of Agriculture’s decree 19.450, which regulates the extraction of coral reef fishes.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Pacific seahorse

The Pacific seahorse (Hippocampus ingens) is a species of fish in the Syngnathidae family. It is found in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and the United States. Its natural habitat is coral reefs. It is threatened by habitat loss. The genus name is derived from the Greek hippos or "horse" and campus or "sea monster."

Description[edit]

The Pacific seahorse is one of the largest of the 34 known species of seahorses in the world.

It has dorsal spines 0-0 (total); Dorsal soft rays (total): 18-21.

  • Adult height: 13 to 19 centimetres (5.1 to 7.5 in)
  • Rings: 11+39 (38-40)
  • Snout length: 2.3 to 2.4 centimetres (0.91 to 0.94 in)
  • Head length: 2.1 to 2.5 centimetres (0.83 to 0.98 in)
  • Dorsal fin rays: 18-21 covering 2+1 rings
  • Pectoral fin rays: 15-17
  • Coronet: medium-high, tilted backwards with 5 well-defined points, or flanges at top. *Spines: variable, from low rounded bumps to well-developed blunt-tipped spines.
  • Other distinctive characters: prominent, long (drooping), rounded, single cheek spines; prominent eye spine (may be broad or almost double); males commonly have a prominent keel; sexually mature females often have a dark patch below the anal fin.
  • Color/Pattern: reddish-maroon, gray, yellow and gold; various shades of brown; may have fine white light and dark markings running vertically down body.

World range and habitat[edit]

The Pacific seahorse is found in the Pacific Ocean from San Diego, California, (USA) to Peru including the Galápagos Islands. It is active during the day and night. It is found in offshore waters, at depths of 2m to 30m and is occasionally caught at the surface. Are often camouflaged within brown algae or the branches of gorgonians and black coral trees where they are seen to curl their tail around the branches. Have been found in the stomachs of Pacific Yellowfin tuna and Bluefin tuna.

Feeding behavior (ecology)[edit]

Seahorses feed on bottom-swarming organisms such as mysids and other plankton.

Mysids are very small (seldom exceeding 30 mm in length) shrimp-like crustaceans which can be found throughout the oceanic water column and are also found in freshwater environments as well. Some mysids feed on small particles which they collect by grooming their body surface, whereas others are predacious on other zooplankton. Some mysids are scavengers. Marine mysids often are found in large swarms and are an important part of many fish diets. Mysids are also called "opposum shrimp", because of the brood pouch present in all mature females.

Mysids at present include more than 1,000 species, widespread over all the continents, inhabiting coastal and open sea waters, as well as continental fresh waters, several taxa occurring also in different groundwater habitats and in anchialine caves.

Seahorses lack teeth and stomachs. Prey is consumed by sucking it through their bony snout with a rapid snap of the head.

Life history[edit]

In seahorses, the female uses her ovipositor to deposit her eggs in the male's brood pouch where they are fertilized and remain until hatched. After a period of time, varying from ten days to six weeks, depending on the species and water temperature, the male gives birth to hundreds of live, tiny, seahorses, which are miniature replicas of the adults. Mode: dioecism, fertilization: in brood pouch or similar structure, and gestation period is 14–15 days depending on temperature.

Sources[edit]

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