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References

  • 1. IUCN Red List 2006 (January, 2007) http://www.iucnredlist.orghttp://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 2. FishBase (January, 2007) http://fishbase.org/Summary/SpeciesSummary.php?id=3283http://fishbase.org/Summary/SpeciesSummary.php?id=3283 External link.
  • 3. CITES (January, 2007) http://www.cites.orghttp://www.cites.org External link.
  • 4. Animal Diversity Web (January, 2007) http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippocampus_erectus.htmlhttp://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippocampus_erectus.html External link.
  • 5. Lourie, S.A., Foster, S.J., Cooper, E.W.T. and Vincent, A.C.J. (2004) A Guide to the Identification of Seahorses - Project Seahorse and TRAFFIC North America. University of British Columbia and World Wildlife Fund, Washington D.C. Available at http://seahorse.fisheries.ubc.ca/IDguide.htmlhttp://seahorse.fisheries.ubc.ca/IDguide.html External link.
  • 6. South Carolina: Department of Natural Resources – Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy (CWCS) (January, 2007) http://www.dnr.sc.gov/cwcs/species.htmlhttp://www.dnr.sc.gov/cwcs/species.html External link.
  • 7. Project Seahorse (January, 2007) http://seahorse.fisheries.ubc.ca/biology5.htmlhttp://seahorse.fisheries.ubc.ca/biology5.html External link.
  • ASIH, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists0 Ontogeny and systematics of fishes. Based on an international symposium dedicated to the memory of Elbert Halvor Ahlstrom, 15-18 August 1983, La Jolla, California. Spec. Publ. Am. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol. 1:ix, 760 p. (Ref. 63)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=63&speccode=6 External link.
  • Acero, A.P.0 Zoogeographical implications of the distribution of selected families of Caribbean coral reef fishes. Proc. of the Fifth International Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti, Vol. 5. (Ref. 26280)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=26280&speccode=967 External link.
  • Adams, C, Larkin, S & D Lee. 2001. Volume and value of marine ornamentals collected in Florida, 1990-1998. Aquar. Sci. Conserv. 3: 25-36.Azzarello, MY. 1991. Some questions concerning the Syngnathidae brood pouch. Bull. Mar. Sci. 49: 741-747.
  • Afonso, P., F.M. Porteiro, R.S. Santos, J.P. Barreiros, J. Worms and P. Wirtz0 Coastal marine fishes of São Tomé Island (Gulf of Guinea). Arquipélago 17(A):65-92. (Ref. 34088)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=34088&speccode=7 External link.
  • Anderson, E.0 The formation of the primary envelope during oocyte differentiation in teleosts. J. Cell Biol. 35:193-212. (Ref. 31771)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=31771&speccode=3283 External link.
  • Anonymous0 Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West , NY 10024-5192, USA. (Ref. 41414)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=41414&speccode=3 External link.
  • Anonymous0 Fish collection database of the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL), Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA. (Ref. 34634)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=34634&speccode=3 External link.
  • Anonymous0 Fish collection database of the Intitut fur Seefischerei (ISH). BIOLAB Forschungsinstitut, Hohenwestedt, Germany. (Ref. 35509)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=35509&speccode=4 External link.
  • Anonymous0 Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution-Division of Fishes. (Ref. 38732)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=38732&speccode=3 External link.
  • Anonymous0 Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). (Ref. 31982)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=31982&speccode=3 External link.
  • Anonymous0 Fish collection database of the University of British Columbia Fish Museum Fish Museum. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. (Ref. 10937)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=10937&speccode=3 External link.
  • Anonymous0 Fish collection database of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. (Ref. 40919)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=40919&speccode=4 External link.
  • Anonymous0 Fish collection of the Royal Ontario Museum. Royal Ontario Museum. (Ref. 47438)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=47438&speccode=3 External link.
  • Anonymous0 Fish registrations within the museum database of the Vertebrate Section of the Royal Museum for Central Africa. MRAC, Tervuren, Belgium. (Ref. 12818)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=12818&speccode=3 External link.
  • Aquatic Bookshop. http://www.seahorses.com/SEA_PIPE/seahorse/hippocam/kuda.htm
  • Ayala-Pérez, L.A., J.R. Miranda and D.F. Hernández0 La comunidad de peces de la Laguna de Términos: estructura actual comparada. Rev. Biol. Trop. 51(3):783-794. (Ref. 79080)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=79080&speccode=5 External link.
  • Baillie, J. and B. Groombridge (eds.)0 1996 IUCN red list of threatened animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 378 p. (Ref. 12255)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=12255&speccode=18 External link.
  • Bailly, N. (2014). Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2014) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=159445
  • Balon, E.K. 1990 Epigenesis of an epigeneticist: the development of some alternative concepts on the early ontogeny and evolution of fishes. Guelph Ichthyol. Rev. 1:1-48. (Ref. 7471)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7471&speccode=4669 External link.
  • Balon, E.K.0 Epigenesis of an epigeneticist: the development of some alternative concepts on the early ontogeny and evolution of fishes. Guelph Ichthyol. Rev. 1:1-48. (Ref. 7471)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7471&speccode=3 External link.
  • Baum, J., J. Meewig and A.C.J. Vincent0 Bycatch of lined seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) in a Gulf of Mexico shrimp trawl fishery. Fish. Bull. 101:721-731. (Ref. 52992)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=52992&speccode=3283 External link.
  • Baum, JK, Meeuwig, JJ & ACJ Vincent. 2003. Bycatch of lined seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) in a Gulf of Mexico shrimp trawl fishery. Fish. Bull. 101: 721-731.
  • Bergert, BA & PC Wainwright. 1997. Morphology and kinematics of prey capture in the syngnathid fishes Hippocampus erectus and Syngnathus floridae. Mar. Biol. 127: 563-570.
  • Beverton, R.J.H. and S.J. Holt0 A review of the lifespans and mortality rates of fish in nature, and their relation to growth and other physiological characteristics. p. 142-180. In G.E.W. Wolstenholme and M. O'Connor (eds.) CIBA Foundation colloquia on ageing: the lifespan of animals. volume 5. J & A Churchill Ltd, London. (Ref. 796)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=796&speccode=23 External link.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and Schroeder, W.C., 1953; Lieske, E. and R. Myers, 1994; Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall, 1999; Moe, A.M. Jr., 1992; Schumann, B., 1969; Smith, C.L., 1997; Wicklund, R.I., S.J. Wilk and L. Ogren, 1969.
  • Blasiola, GCJ. 1979. Glugea heraldi n. sp. (Microsporida, Glugeidae) from the seahorse Hippocampus erectus Perry. J. Fish Diseases. 2: 493-500.
  • Blazer, S & RE Wolke. 1979. An Exophiala-like fungus as the cause of a systemic mycosis of marine fish. J. Fish Diseases. 2: 145-152.
  • Bohlke, J. E., and C. C. G. Chaplin. 1968. Fishes of the Bahamas and Adjacent Tropical Waters, Second Edition. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.
  • Branch, GM. 1966. Contributions to the functional morphology of fishes.The feeding mechanism of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus. Zoologica African. 2: 69-89.
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen0 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=205&speccode=4 External link.
  • Breder, CM, Jr. 1948. Field book of marine fishes of the Atlantic coast from Labrador of Texas. Putman, NY. USA. 332 pp.
  • Buckel, J.A., M.J. Fogarty and D.O. Conover0 Foraging habits of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, on the U.S. east coast continental shelf. Fish. Bull. 97:758-775. (Ref. 35884)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=35884&speccode=24 External link.
  • Burgess, W.E., H.R. Axelrod and R.E. Hunziker III0 Dr. Burgess's Atlas der Meerwasser Aquarium Fische. Bede Verlag, Kollnburg, Germany. (Ref. 2272)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=2272&speccode=392 External link.
  • Böhlke, J.E. and C.C.G. Chaplin0 Fishes of the Bahamas and adjacent tropical waters. 2nd edition. University of Texas Press, Austin. (Ref. 5521)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5521&speccode=6 External link.
  • CITES. 2004. Seahorses and other members of the family Syngnathidae (decision 12.54) Report of the Working Group. AC20 Doc. 17. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Twentieth meeting of the Animals Committee Johannesburg (South Africa). 29 March-2 April 2004.
  • Carl, H.0 Danish fish names. Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Unpublished. (Ref. 51471)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=51471&speccode=3 External link.
  • Cheung, PJ, Nigrelli, RF & GD Ruggieri. 1980. Studies of the morphology of Uronema marinum Dujardin (Ciliatea: Uronematidae) with a description of the histopathology of the infection in marine fishes. J. Fish Diseases. 3: 295-303.
  • Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences0 Chinese aquatic germplasm resources database. http://zzzy.fishinfo.cn (Ref. 58108)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=58108&speccode=3 External link.
  • Claro, R. and L.R. Parenti0 The marine ichthyofauna of Cuba. p. 21-57. In Claro, R., K.C. Lindeman and L.R. Parenti (eds) Ecology of the marine fishes of Cuba. Smithsonian Institution Press, Wahsington and London. 253p. (Ref. 54206)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=54206&speccode=5 External link.
  • Claro, R.0 Características generales de la ictiofauna. p. 55-70. In R. Claro (ed.) Ecología de los peces marinos de Cuba. Instituto de Oceanología Academia de Ciencias de Cuba and Centro de Investigaciones de Quintana Roo. (Ref. 26340)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=26340&speccode=5 External link.
  • Claro, Rodolfo, and Lynne R. Parenti / Claro, Rodolfo, Kenyon C. Lindeman, and L. R. Parenti, eds. 2001. Chapter 2: The Marine Ichthyofauna of Cuba. Ecology of the Marine Fishes of Cuba. 21-57
  • Collette, B.B. and G. Klein-MacPhee (eds.)0 Bigelow and Schroeder’s fishes of the Gulf of Maine, third ed. Caldwell, N.J. : Blackburn Press, 577 p.: ill.; 27 cm. (Ref. 86779)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=86779&speccode=6 External link.
  • Colson, DJ, Patek, SN, Brainerd, EL & SM Lewis. 1998. Sound production during feeding in Hippocampus seahorses (Syngnathidae). Env. Biol. Fish. 51: 221-229.
  • Coral Forest. http://www.blacktop.com/coralforest/SeaHorse.html
  • Correa, M, Chung, KS & R Manrique. 1989. Cultivo experimental del caballito de mar, Hippocampus erectus. Bol. Inst. Ocean. Venezuela Univ. Oriente. 28: 191-196.
  • Debelius, H.0 Fischführer Mittelmeer und Atlantik. Jahr Verlag GmbH & Co., Hamburg. 305 p. (Ref. 34514)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=34514&speccode=14 External link.
  • Department of Fisheries Malaysia0 Valid local name of Malaysian marine fishes. Department of Fisheries Malaysia. Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry. 180 p. (Ref. 85449)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=85449&speccode=6 External link.
  • Edwards, A.0 Fish and fisheries of Saint Helena Island. Centre for Tropical Coastal Management Studies, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, England. (Ref. 5288)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5288&speccode=7 External link.
  • Eggleston, D.B. and E.A. Bochenek0 Stomach contents and parasite infestation of school bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus collected from the middle Atlantic bight, Virginia. Fish. Bull. 88(2):389-395. (Ref. 32135)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=32135&speccode=147 External link.
  • Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.)0 Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of March 2009. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in March 2009. (Ref. 80565)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=80565&speccode=35 External link.
  • Figueiredo, J.L. and N.A. Menezes0 Manual de peixes marinhos do sudeste do Brasil. III. Teleostei (2). Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. Brasil. 90 p. (Ref. 9050)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9050&speccode=336 External link.
  • Fish, MP & WH Mowbray. 1970. Sounds of western North Atlantic fishes. Johns Hopkins Press. Baltimore, MD. USA. 207 pp.
  • Fish, MP, Kelsey, AS, Jr. & WH Mowbray. 1952. Studies on the production of underwater sounds by North Atlantic coastal fishes. J. Mar. Res. 11: 180-193.
  • Fish, MP. 1953. The production of underwater sound by the northern seahorse, Hippocampus hudsonius. Copeia. 1953: 98-99.
  • Fish, MP. 1954. The character and significance of sound production among fishes of the western North Atlantic. Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll. 14: 1-109.
  • Floeter, S.R., J.L. Gasparini, L.A. Rocha, C.E.L. Ferreira, C.A. Rangel and B.M. Feitoza0 Brazilian reef fish fauna: checklist and remarks (updated Jan. 2003). Brazilian Reef Fish Project: www.brazilianreeffish.cjb.net. (Ref. 57756)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=57756&speccode=14 External link.
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  • Foster, S.J. and A.C.J. Vincent0 Life history and ecology of seahorses: implications for conservation and management. J. Fish Biol. 65:1-61. (Ref. 52034)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=52034&speccode=13100 External link.
  • Foster, SJ & ACJ Vincent. 2004. Life history and ecology of seahorses: implications for conservation and management. J. Fish Biol. 65: 1-61.
  • Foster, SJ, Marsden, AD & ACJ Vincent. 2003. Hippocampus erectus. IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.Gill, T. 1905. The life history of sea horses (hippocampids). Proc. US Nat. Mus. 28: 805-814.
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  • Gardiner, N.0 Hippocampus erectus. University of Michigan. Michigan, USA. Undergraduate report. (Ref. 53426)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=53426&speccode=3283 External link.
  • Gibbons, S.0 Collect fish on stamps. Stanley Gibbons Ltd., London and Ringwood. 418 p. (Ref. 31522)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=31522&speccode=3 External link.
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  • Hardy, J.D. Jr. (comp.)0 Coral reef fish species. NOAANational Oceanographic Data Center. NODC Coral Reef Data and Information Management System. USA. 537 p. (Ref. 48497)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=48497&speccode=6 External link.
  • Hardy, JD. 1978. Development of fishes of the Mid-Atlantic Bight: an atlas of egg, larval and juvenile stages - Volume II. Anguillidae through Syngnathidae. US Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Sciences. Washington, DC. USA.
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  • Herald, R. and M. Rakowicz 1951 Stable requirements for raising sea horses. Aquarium J. 22:234-242. (Ref. 1285)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=1285&speccode=3283 External link.
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  • Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall0 Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=30915&speccode=67 External link.
  • Lourie, SA, Foster, SJ, Cooper, EWT & ACJ Vincent. 2004. A guide to the identification of seahorses. Project Seahorse & TRAFFIC North America. University of British Columbia and World Wildlife Fund. Washington, DC. USA.
  • Lourie, SA, Vincent, AC & HJ Hall. 1999. Seahorse: An identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse. London, UK.
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  • Matlock, G.C.0 Life history aspects of seahorses, Hippocampus, in Texas. Texas J. Sci. 44(2):213-222. (Ref. 36639)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=36639&speccode=3283 External link.
  • Matlock, GC. 1992. Life history aspects of seahorses, Hippocampus, in Texas. Texas J. Sci. 44: 213-222.
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