Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Originally occurs in vegetated sloughs, pools of sluggish rivers and lakes; now most common in ponds and impoundments.
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Distribution

endemic to a single state or province

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (1000-5000 square km (about 400-2000 square miles)) The Sacramento perch is only native centrarchid west of the Rocky Mountains. It was originally widely distributed throughout the Sacramento-San Joaquin drainage, in the Pajaro and Salinas rivers, and in Clear Lake (Lake County), California (Moyle 2002). Persisting native populations exist in Clear Lake (small population) and Alameda Creek (in gravel pit ponds adjacent to the creek and in Calaveras Reservoir) (Moyle 2002). However, the species has been introduced in other locations within the native range (often upstream of native habitats) (Moyle 2002), and in several areas outside the native range in California, including the upper Klamath basin (California and Oregon), Pit River watershed, Walker River watershed, Mono Lake watershed, and Owens River watershed; it may also persist in Sonoma Reservoir (Moyle 2002).

The species has been introduced and currently is established in Nevada (several drainages) and Utah (Garrison Reservoir) (Moyle 2002). Introduced populations in several other states apparently no longer exist (Moyle 2002).

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Range Description

The Sacramento Perch is only native centrarchid west of the Rocky Mountains. It was originally widely distributed throughout the Sacramento-San Joaquin drainage, in the Pajaro and Salinas rivers, and in Clear Lake (Lake County), California (Moyle 2002). Persisting native populations exist in Clear Lake (small population) and Alameda Creek (in gravel pit ponds adjacent to the creek and in Calaveras Reservoir) (Moyle 2002). However, the species has been introduced in other locations within the native range (often upstream of native habitats) (Moyle 2002), and in several areas outside the native range in California, including the upper Klamath basin (California and Oregon), Pit River watershed, Walker River watershed, Mono Lake watershed, and Owens River watershed; it may also persist in Sonoma Reservoir (Moyle 2002).

The species has been introduced and currently is established in Nevada (several drainages) and Utah (Garrison Reservoir) (Moyle 2002). Introduced populations in several other states apparently no longer exist (Moyle 2002).
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North America: Sacramento-San Joaquin, Pajaro and Salinas River drainages in California, USA. Widely introduced elsewhere in western USA.
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Western U.S.A., introduced elsewhere.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 61 cm

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Maximum size: 730 mm TL
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Max. size

73.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723)); max. published weight: 1,440 g (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 72491)
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Type Information

Type for Archoplites interruptus
Catalog Number: USNM 278
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): Williamson
Locality: Sacr. River Cal., California, United States, North America
  • Type:
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Syntype; Paralectotype for Archoplites interruptus
Catalog Number: USNM 280
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): A. Whipple
Locality: Sacramento River San Francisco, Cal., San Francisco County, California, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Girard, C. F. 1854. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 7: 129.; Fowler, H. W. 1907. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 58: 514.; Paralectotype: Girard, C. F. 1854. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 7: 129.; Fowler, H. W. 1907. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 58: 514.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: Native habitat included sloughs, sluggish rivers, and lakes with beds of rooted and emergent vegetation; now this fish is found mostly in warm, turbid, moderately alkaline reservoirs or farm ponds, generally where other centrarchids are absent (Moyle 2002). This fish is tolerant of a wide range in water turbity, temperature, salinity, and alkalinity, and large populations may occur in shallow, turbid reservoirs with no aquatic plants (Moyle 2002). In moderately clear water, young stay in or close to submerged vegetation in shallow areas (Moyle 2002). Prior to spawning, males establish small territories in shallow areas (20-75 cm) heavily vegetated with aquatic macrophytes, filamentous algae, or other cover (Moyle 2002). Eggs are deposited in shallow depressions constructed by males (Moyle 2002).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Native habitat included sloughs, sluggish rivers, and lakes with beds of rooted and emergent vegetation; now this fish is found mostly in warm, turbid, moderately alkaline reservoirs or farm ponds, generally where other centrarchids are absent (Moyle 2002). This fish is tolerant of a wide range in water turbity, temperature, salinity, and alkalinity, and large populations may occur in shallow, turbid reservoirs with no aquatic plants (Moyle 2002). In moderately clear water, young stay in or close to submerged vegetation in shallow areas (Moyle 2002). Prior to spawning, males establish small territories in shallow areas (20-75 cm) heavily vegetated with aquatic macrophytes, filamentous algae, or other cover (Moyle 2002). Eggs are deposited in shallow depressions constructed by males (Moyle 2002).

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater
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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Opportunistic; diet mainly benthic insect larvae, snails, mid-water insects, zooplankton, and fishes (Moyle et al. 1989). Young feed mainly on small crustaceans, but as they grow Sacramento perch consume more aquatic insects larvae and pupae. Large adults feed mainly on other fishes when available.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5

Comments: This species is represented by only a couple remaining native populations, plus several introduced populations that may be reasonably secure (Moyle 2002). Most introduced pond and reservoir populations are not expected to persist over the long term because of changing conditions (Moyle 20020.

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Global Abundance

Unknown

Comments: Historically this fish was quite abundant. Remaining native populations are small. No reliable population estimates are available.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Feeds at any time during the day or night but activity apparently peaks at dawn and dusk (Moyle 1976).

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Reproduction

Sexually mature in 2nd or 3rd summer. In California, spawning occurs late March-early August, peak in May-June; timing of breeding depends on temeprature. Spawning begins in mid-June in Pyramid Lake, or when water temperature reaches 68 F. Eggs hatch in about 50 hours at 21.7 C. Male remains with eggs until hatching and for about 2 more days following hatching (Moyle et al. 1989).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Archoplites interruptus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTTTATTTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCCGGAATAGTGGGCACGGCCTTAAGCCTACTGATTCGAGCAGAGCTCAGCCAACCGGGCGCCCTCCTCGGGGACGACCAGATTTATAATGTAATTGTAACAGCACATGCATTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATTGGGGGCTTTGGCAACTGGTTAGTCCCCCTAATGATTGGCGCACCCGATATAGCCTTCCCCCGAATAAATAATATGAGTTTTTGACTCCTCCCCCCTTCTTTCCTTCTCCTCCTTGCCTCCTCTGGGGTTGAAGCCGGGGCAGGAACTGGGTGGACCGTTTACCCCCCTCTGTCCGGCAATCTAGCCCACGCAGGAGCATCCGTTGACCTAACTATCTTCTCCCTCCACCTCGCCGGGGTCTCTTCCATCCTGGGGGCCATTAACTTTATTACCACAATTATTAACATAAAGCCCCCCACTATTTCTCAGTACCAGACACCGTTGTTTGTATGGTCCGTTCTAATTACTGCCGTCCTCCTTCTCCTCTCCCTCCCAGTTCTTGCTGCAGGCATCACAATACTCCTTACAGACCGGAATCTTAATACCACATTCTTTGACCCGGCAGGCGGGGGAGACCCAANNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Archoplites interruptus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G2 - Imperiled

Reasons: Formerly widely distributed and common in much of California; now restricted to just a couple remaining native populations in California, which are small but persistent; native habitat is dominated by introduced species, which threaten Sacramento perch through competition and predation; reasonably secure in several watersheds outside native range. Based on native populations, rank would be G1 (G2G3 if introduced populations are considered).

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
NatureServe

Reviewer/s
Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Endangered because remaining native extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 square kilometres, native area of occupancy is less than 500 square kilometres, only two native locations remain, distribution is severely fragmented, and habitat quality is likely to be declining.
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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable to decline of 30%

Comments: Only two native populations are maintaining themselves (tenuously); of the introduced populations, those in the upper Klamath watershed, Pyramid Lake (Nevada), lower Walker River, and Owens River are reasonably secure; most pond and reservoir populations will not persist indefinitely (Moyle 2002).

Global Long Term Trend: Decline of >90%

Comments: This species has been eliminated from more than 90 percent of the native range.

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Population

Population
This species is represented by only a couple of remaining native populations, plus several introduced populations.that may be reasonably secure (Moyle 2002). Most introduced pond and reservoir populations are not expected to persist over the long term because of changing conditions (Moyle 2002).

Historically this fish was quite abundant. Remaining native populations are small. No reliable population estimates are available.

This species has been eliminated from more than 90 percent of the native range over the long term.

Only two native populations are maintaining themselves (tenuously); of the introduced populations, those in the upper Klamath watershed, Pyramid Lake (Nevada), lower Walker River, and Owens River are reasonably secure; most pond and reservoir populations will not persist indefinitely (Moyle 2002).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Degree of Threat: Very high - medium

Comments: Formerly this fish was widespread and abundant in California, but the population declined rapidly probably due to factors such as habitat destruction, egg predation by non-native fishes, and interspecific competition with introduced centrarchids, especially black crappie; competition may be the most important cause of the decline (Moyle 1976, 2002). Most introduced populations are isolated and vulnerable to genetic bottlenecks and extirpation.

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Major Threats
Formerly this fish was widespread and abundant in California, but the population declined rapidly probably due to factors such as habitat destruction, egg predation by non-native fishes, and interspecific competition with introduced centrarchids, especially Black Crappie; competition may be the most important cause of the decline (Moyle 1976, 2002). Most introduced populations are isolated and vulnerable to genetic bottlenecks and extirpation.
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Not Evaluated
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Management

Management Requirements: Management needed: Maintain remaining genetic diversity (Moyle 2002). Propagate these fishes in ponds near Clear Lake and restock the lake with juveniles and adults. See recovery plan for Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta native fishes (USFWS 1995).

Biological Research Needs: Research propagation techniques. Conduct taxonomic studies of the relationship between native and introduced populations (mostly derived from one locality: Brickyard Pond).

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Global Protection: Few (1-3) occurrences appropriately protected and managed

Needs: See recovery plan for Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta native fishes (USFWS 1995).

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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Management needed: Maintain remaining genetic diversity (Moyle 2002). Propagate these fishes in ponds near Clear Lake and restock the lake with juveniles and adults. See recovery plan for Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta native fishes (USFWS 1995).

Review distribution and status at least once every 10 years (Moyle 2002).
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Wikipedia

Sacramento perch

The Sacramento perch (Archoplites interruptus) is a sunfish (family Centrarchidae) native to the SacramentoSan Joaquin, Pajaro, and Salinas River areas in California, but widely introduced throughout the western United States.

The Sacramento perch's native habitat is in sluggish, vegetated waters of sloughs and lakes. It can reach a maximum overall length of 61 cm (24 in) and a maximum weight of 3.6 kg (7.9 lb), and it has been reported to live as long as six years.

A. interruptus is currently the only species of genus Archoplites, but Girard had originally assigned it to Centrarchus. The generic name, Archoplites, derives from the Greek άρχος (ruler) and οπλίτης (bearing a shield).

Although called the Sacramento perch, A. interruptus is not a perch strictly speaking; the perches are members of the genus Perca in family Percidae.

References[edit]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: The only living member of the genus; the most "primitive" living member of the Centrarchidae (Lee et al. 1980).

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