Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occurs in large springs.
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott 1991 Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Pub. (20):183 p. (Ref. 3814)
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Distribution

Range Description

Historically this species occupied Comal (Guadalupe River system) and San Marcos springs, central Texas; it has been widely introduced in springs in the Colorado and Rio Grande (including Pecos River) drainages in western Texas (Minckley et al. 1991, Page and Burr 2011).
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endemic to a single state or province

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Historically this species occupied Comal (Guadalupe River system) and San Marcos springs, central Texas; it has been widely introduced in springs in the Colorado and Rio Grande (including Pecos River) drainages in western Texas (Minckley et al. 1991, Page and Burr 2011).

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North America: San Marcos and Guadalupe River systems in Texas, USA.
  • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
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Texas, U.S.A.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 3 cm

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Maximum size: 44 mm TL
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Max. size

4.4 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723))
  • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Habitat includes cool, clear, high-volume discharge springs near their emergence from underground limestone aquifers; this species is often in swift water (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011).

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: Habitat includes cool, clear, high-volume discharge springs near their emergence from underground limestone aquifers; this species is often in swift water (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011).

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Environment

benthopelagic; non-migratory; freshwater
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Depth range based on 4 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 0.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20

Comments: Nine localities in western and central Texas were mapped by Lee et al. (1980). Formerly in two springs and spring runs; now in four more (C. Hubbs, pers. comm., 1995).

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Global Abundance

Unknown

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Live bearing. May breed year-round. Gravid females "dominate" populations from late March to early June in Devil's River.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
NatureServe

Reviewer/s
Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
Small area of occupancy, but listed as Least Concern in view of the several subpopulations and locations, increased distribution and abundance (compared to historical situation), apparently stable trend, and lack of major threats.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Occurs in springs in central Texas; introductions have improved the conservation status.

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Population

Population
Nine localities in western and central Texas were mapped by Lee et al. (1980). Formerly in two springs and spring runs; now in four more (C. Hubbs pers. comm. 1995).

Abundance is ten times historical level (C. Hubbs pers. comm. 1995).

Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely to be relatively stable.

Population Trend
Stable
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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Global Long Term Trend: Increase of >25%

Comments: Abundance is ten times historical level (C. Hubbs, pers. comm., 1995).

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Threats

Major Threats
This species is probably secure, based on numbers and "wide" distribution (Minckley et al. 1991). No significant threats are known (C. Hubbs pers. comm. 1995).
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Comments: Likely secure, based on numbers and "wide" distribution (Minckley et al. 1991). No significant threats are known (C. Hubbs, pers. comm., 1995).

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Subgenus ARTHROPHALLUS, SENILIS species group (Rauchenberger 1989). See Rauchenberger (1989) for a study of the interrelationships of the subgenera and species groups within the genus GAMBUSIA.

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