Comprehensive Description

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 Large terrestrial ferns;rhizomeserect or suberect, rarely decumbent and dorsiventral, short, stout, (10–)15–20 mm in diameter (excluding scales), apex covered with scales; scales of rhizome and bases of stipes linear-subulate to oblong-ovate, 20–30 ×1–3(–5) mm, thin, light brown to brown, concolorous but somewhatthicker and darker basally and in center, basifixed, base rounded or truncate, apex sinuate, margins entire or subentire, cells linear, arranged in vertical rows.Frondsclustered near apices of rhizomes, usually dimorphic but both fertile and sterile pinnae occasionally occurring on the same blade; stipes 41–102 cm long, 4–10 mm in diameter, stout, light to dark brown when fresh, drying stramineous, densely scaly toward the bases, sparsely so distally, eventually glabrescent, smooth, grooved adaxially.Sterile blades1-pinnate, oblong-ovate to oblong-elliptic, (35–)50–100 × (20–)30–60 cm, coriaceous to subcoriaceous, stiff, rachises stramineous or sometimes dark brown, proximal pinnae only slightly or not at all reduced, apices acute, each blade with a conform terminal pinna, when young the rachises, costae, costules, and veins scaly with thin, scurfy, brown to pale brown, oblong-ovate to subulate, contorted-sinuate scales to 10 mm long with margins subentire or sometimes lacerate basally; pinnae 19–30 on a side, with a slightly swollen, mammiform aerophore at the base each pinna, basal pinnae opposite and shortly stipitate (to 2 mm), the distal ones becoming subopposite to alternate, sessile with basiscopic base often adnate to rachis, terminal pinna free, conform, medial pinnae 11–30 × 1.5–2.5 cm, linear, margins serrulate, often decidedly undulate, apices acute or acuminate, serrulate, acroscopic bases oblique-cuneate, basiscopic base truncate or rounded, the veins prominulous, simple or 1-forked, free, each ending in a marginal tooth;fertile frondssubequal to or slightly smaller than sterile, with up to 40 pinnae pairs (sometimes the proximal pinnae sterile and distal pinnae fertile on the same frond), fertile pinnae approximately the same length as sterile pinnae but narrower, 2.5–5 mm wide, the margins strongly revolute, the sori covering most of the abaxial surface but usually with some expanded green tissue at the base, adaxially glabrate.Sorilinear, abaxial surface of pinnae bordered or partly covered by the reflexed, scarious, erose blade margins except on expanded green bases.Sporessubellipsoidal, 67 × 47 µm including a perispore 8–12 µm wide.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© David H. Lorence, Warren L. Wagner, Kenneth R. Wood, Alan R. Smith

Source: PhytoKeys

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