Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Gregarious and non-aggressive. Occur in calm coastal waters (Ref. 27188); in densely vegetated swamps. Feed on worms, small crustaceans and insects (Ref. 7020). Are popular among aquarists because of their robustness, peaceful character, and delicate colors (Ref. 12225). Reproduction is easily carried out, 300 to 400 eggs are obtained per spawn (Ref. 27188). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 60 cm (Ref. 51539).
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Distribution

South America: Amazon, Orinoco, and coastal river drainages of the Guianas.
  • Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. … 2003 Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 38376)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=38376&speccode=10622 External link.
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Amazon, Orinoco and coastal river drainages of the Guianas: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana and Venezuela.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 45 mm ---
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Max. size

4.5 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 38376))
  • Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. … 2003 Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 38376)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=38376&speccode=10622 External link.
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Diagnostic Description

Humeral spot round and small, about the size of the pupil; the dorsal fin black spot is over lined with white and underlined with yellow, color patterns of pelvic and anal fins are symmetrical; adipose fin is hyaline (Ref. 12225).
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

pelagic; freshwater; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 35
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Trophic Strategy

Feeds on benthic and planktonic invertebrates (Ref. 27188).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pristella maxillaris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Pristella maxillaris

Pristella maxillaris, the only species in the genus Pristella, is commonly known as the golden pristella tetra or X-ray tetra because of its highly transparent body.[1] It is a widely distributed and adaptable fish, being found in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, as well as coastal rivers in the Guianas in both acidic and alkaline waters.[2] Unlike most other characins, it is tolerant of (and sometimes found in) slightly brackish water.[3] It is small (up to around 5 cm or 2.0 in in length) and lives in large groups, and males can be distinguished from females by being smaller and thinner than the females. Like most other tetras, it feeds primarily on small insects and planktonic animals.[4]

Nomenclature[edit]

Older aquarium books often refer to this species by an obsolete Latin name, Pristella riddlei. Aquarists tend to refer to this fish as the golden pristella tetra, though some call it the X-ray tetra, instead.[1] Other common names include goldfinch tetra, a reference to the similarly coloured goldfinch, and pristella tetra, a modification of its Latin name.[2] A common name that was once widespread but is now rarely used is signal tetra, a reference to the similarity between the yellow and black dorsal fin and the arm of a semaphore railway signal.[5]

In aquaria[edit]

Pristella maxillaris is a small, adaptable fish that is often kept in a home aquarium and will eat most prepared foods. It is tolerant of a range of water chemistry values (pH 6-8; hardness up to 20 dGH). As a shoaling species, it is usually kept in groups of at least six specimens and away from aggressive or predatory tankmates, but is otherwise easily kept in the community tank.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. "Common name search result". FishBase. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2011). "Pristella maxillaris" in FishBase. October 2011 version.
  3. ^ Monks N. (editor): Brackish Water Fishes, TFH 2006, ISBN 0-7938-0564-3
  4. ^ BBC. "Amazing animals - x-ray fish". BBC. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  5. ^ Riehl R. & Baensch H: Aquarium Atlas (vol. 1), Voyageur Press, 1996, ISBN 3-88244-050-3
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