Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occurs in coastal waters to about 800 km or more from the shore, forming dense schools at about 30 to 90 m depth in summer, but down to 100 to 200 m during winter. Feeds as juveniles on zooplankton, but with phytoplankton becoming increasingly important. Spawns throughout the year, most intensely and close to shore in October or November and again in May or June but less intensely and more offshore. Exhibits north-south and near shore-offshore migrations. During winter as the most favorable feeding period for larvae which occurs in the continental shelf in the extreme south of Brazil (Ref. 53892). Consumed fresh or canned (Ref. 4931).Typical size 7-13 cm SL (Ref. 47377).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana 1988 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=189&speccode=4 External link.
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Distribution

Southwest Atlantic: north of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to San Jorge Gulf, Argentina.
  • Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana 1988 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=189&speccode=4 External link.
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Southwestern Atlantic from Brazil to Argentina.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 16; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 17 - 21
  • Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana 1988 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=189&speccode=4 External link.
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Size

Maximum size: 170 mm SL
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Max. size

17.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 189)); max. published weight: 25.0 g (Ref. 4883)
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Diagnostic Description

Snout prominent, pointed, about 3/4 eye diameter; maxilla moderate, tip bluntly tapering or a little rounded, reaching to front margin of pre-operculum, extending a little beyond tip of second supra-maxilla; teeth in jaws numerous, small. Lower gill rakers long and slender; no gill rakers on hind face of third epibranchial; pseudobranch long, reaching onto inner face of operculum (Ref.189). Blackish blue dorsally, silvery white laterally and ventrally. All fins transparent (Ref. 27363).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana 1988 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=189&speccode=4 External link.
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Type Information

Paratype for Engraulis anchoita
Catalog Number: USNM 116438
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Locality: Argentina: Mar De La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, Atlantic
  • Paratype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 30 - 200 m (Ref. 189)
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Depth range based on 1414 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 681 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 5 - 428
  Temperature range (°C): 6.298 - 18.795
  Nitrate (umol/L): 3.561 - 17.483
  Salinity (PPS): 33.179 - 36.101
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.732 - 6.209
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.381 - 1.738
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.451 - 7.801

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 5 - 428

Temperature range (°C): 6.298 - 18.795

Nitrate (umol/L): 3.561 - 17.483

Salinity (PPS): 33.179 - 36.101

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.732 - 6.209

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.381 - 1.738

Silicate (umol/l): 2.451 - 7.801
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 30 - 200m.
From 30 to 200 meters.

Habitat: pelagic. Occurs in coastal waters to about 800 km or more from the shore, forming dense schools at about 30 to 90 m depth in summer, but down to 100 to 200 m during winter. Feeds as juveniles on zooplankton, but with phytoplankton becoming increasingly important. Spawns throughout the year, most intensely and close to shore in October/November and again in May/June but less intensely and more offshore. Exhibits north-south and near shore-offshore migrations. Consumed fresh or canned (Ref. 4931).
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs in coastal waters to about 800 km or more from the shore; forming dense schools at about 30 to 90 m depth in summer off Argentina, but down to 100 to 200 m depth in winter. Schools around southern Uruguay and northern Argentina; moves offshore toward the end of the year and northward in March to June, moving south again and close to shore in August to October. Employs both filter- and particulate-feeding modes on zooplankton (Ref. 42392). In south Brazil, it is during winter when the most favorable season for larval feeding with high probability of prey consumption due to shelfbreak upwelling, high vertical stability in the water column and high production in the coastal region (Ref. 53892).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana 1988 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=189&speccode=4 External link.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Engraulis anchoita

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNACAGCACTTAGCCTGCTATTCCGAGCAGAATTAAGCCAGCCGGGGGCACTTCTGGGAGATGATCAGATTTATAATGTGATCGTCACCGCTCACGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTTTTTATAGTAATACCAATCCTAATCGGCGGATTCGGAAATTGACTAGTTCCTTTAATACTTGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCCCGAATAAACAATATAAGCTTTTGACTTCTTCCCCCCTCATTTCTCCTCCTCCTTGCCTCATCGGGGGTTGAAGCAGGGGCCGGAACGGGCTGAACAGTCTACCCCCCTCTAGCGGGAAACCTGGCCCACGCAGGGGCATCAGTGGACCTTACGATTTTTTCCCTTCATTTGGCGGGCATTTCATCAATCTTGGGCGCCATTAACTTCATTACCACTATTATTAACATAAAACCTCCTGCCATCTCACAATATCAAACGCCTCTATTTGTCTGAGCTGTGCTAATTACAGCAGTACTTTTACTTCTCTCGCTCCCGGTTTTAGCGGCTGGGATCACTATGCTTCTTACAGATCGAAACCTAAACACCACCTTCTTTGACCCAGCAGGAGGGGGGGACCCAATTCTTTATNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Engraulis anchoita

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 18
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Wikipedia

Argentine anchoita

The Argentine anchoita, Engraulis anchoita, is an anchovy of the genus Engraulis, found in and around waters of Argentina. The species, that at present may be considered almost unexploited (Sánchez & Ciechomski, 1995), plays a key role in the pelagic ecosystem of the Argentine waters.

By biomass, it is the largest fish resource of the southwest Atlantic Ocean (Ciechomski & Sánchez, 1988).

The species constitutes the main component of the diet of several important commercial species such as hake, squid and mackerel (Angelescu, 1982).

South of 34°S at least two populations of E. anchoita occur separately at approximately 41°S: the northern and the Patagonian or southern stock (Hansen et al., 1984).

Northern stock undergoes annual migrations: during winter it is found in the northern part of its distribution area, whereas in spring massive spawning occurs in coastal sectors off the Buenos Aires Province, mostly in waters shallower than 50 m (Sánchez & Ciechomski, 1995; Pájaro, 1998). Then, the reproductive schools disperse into outer shelf waters during summer to feed, returning again to northern waters in winter (Angelescu, 1982; Hansen & Madirolas, 1996; Cousseau and Perrotta, 1998).

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