| Common names: grunt (English), burro (Espanol), roncador (Espanol) |
Anisotremus scapularis (Tschudi, 1845)
Body moderately deep, compressed, back high; head short, blunt; mouth small, low, ~ horizontal, lips fleshy; inside mouth not red; teeth in bands on jaws, outer ones larger, conical, none on center roof of mouth; a pair of conspicuous pores plus a central groove under the chin; preopercle finely serrated; dorsal continuous but deeply notched, 4th spine longest, XII, 14-17; anal III, 12-13, 2nd spine long and thick; anterior rays of dorsal and anal fin much taller than posterior rays, giving these fins a somewhat triangular outline; pectoral fins short, not reaching anal origin; tail straight to slightly concave; scales moderate to large, rough, over entire body and head except front of snout, lips and chin, on membranes between dorsal and anal soft rays; lines of scales above lateral line in oblique rows above lateral line.
Dark charcoal grey to brownish on upper half, white below; a silvery-white streak along lateral line (rapidly fades after death).
Size: grows to 40 cm.
Habitat: forms large schools on rocky reefs.
Depth: 5-30 m.
Galapagos Islands, Malpelo, Cocos, northern Peru to Chile.
- Thomson, D.A. 1987 Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 302 p. (Ref. 5592)
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, TEP non-endemic
Regional Endemism: All species, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily, Peruvian province, primarily, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)
Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
- Allen, G.R. and D.R. Robertson 1994 Fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 332 p. (Ref. 11482)
Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only
Water Column Position: Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column
Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
Habitat and Ecology
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.
Depth range (m): 3 - 3
Temperature range (°C): 25.489 - 25.489
Nitrate (umol/L): 0.287 - 0.287
Salinity (PPS): 34.827 - 34.827
Oxygen (ml/l): 4.663 - 4.663
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.143 - 0.143
Silicate (umol/l): 3.670 - 3.670
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
From 3 to 30 meters.
Diet: benthic macroalgae, mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, bony fishes
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Anisotremus scapularis
No available public DNA sequences.
Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anisotremus scapularis
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
CITES: Not listed
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Populations of haemulid species (Orthopristis spp., Anisotremus interruptus and A. scapularis, Haemulon scudderi) declined more than 50% during 1997/98 El Nino, but populations have recoved over the subsequent two year period.
- IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.