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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: grunt (English), burro (Espanol), roncador (Espanol)
 
Anisotremus scapularis (Tschudi, 1845)


Peruvian grunt


Body moderately deep, compressed, back high; head short, blunt; mouth small, low, ~ horizontal, lips fleshy; inside mouth not red; teeth in bands on jaws, outer ones larger, conical, none on center roof of mouth; a pair of conspicuous pores plus a central groove under the chin; preopercle finely serrated; dorsal continuous but deeply notched, 4th  spine longest, XII, 14-17; anal III, 12-13, 2nd  spine long and thick;  anterior rays of dorsal and anal fin much taller than posterior rays, giving these fins a somewhat triangular outline; pectoral fins short, not reaching anal origin; tail straight to slightly concave; scales moderate to large, rough, over entire body and head except front of snout, lips and chin, on membranes between dorsal and anal soft rays;  lines of scales above lateral line in oblique rows above lateral line.

Dark charcoal grey to brownish on upper half, white below; a silvery-white streak along lateral line (rapidly fades after death).


Size: grows to 40 cm.

Habitat: forms large schools on rocky reefs.

Depth: 5-30 m.

Galapagos Islands, Malpelo, Cocos, northern Peru to Chile.
   
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Biology

Forms schools in open water above rocky, boulder strewn reefs and slopes and hard substrate with good water movement (Ref. 5227). Feeds on benthic invertebrates and floating organic matter (Ref. 28023).
  • Thomson, D.A. 1987 Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 302 p. (Ref. 5592)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from southern Colombia to Chile. It is also found in the Galapagos and Malpelo Islands.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, TEP non-endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily, Peruvian province, primarily, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Vagrant

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: De Manta, Ecuador to Antofagasta, Chile.
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Southeastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 5 (S) - 30 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 40.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 400 mm NG
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Max. size

40.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 11482)); max. published weight: 896 g (Ref. 53696)
  • Allen, G.R. and D.R. Robertson 1994 Fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 332 p. (Ref. 11482)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This reef-associated species forms schools in open water above rocky, boulder strewn reefs and slopes and hard substrate with strong currents or tides (Humann and Deloach, 1993) to depths of 35m.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 3 - 30 m (Ref. 5227), usually 3 - 12 m (Ref. 5227)
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 3 - 3
  Temperature range (°C): 25.489 - 25.489
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.287 - 0.287
  Salinity (PPS): 34.827 - 34.827
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.663 - 4.663
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.143 - 0.143
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.670 - 3.670
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 3 - 30m.
From 3 to 30 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Forms schools in open water above rocky, boulder strewn reefs and slopes and hard substrate with good water movement (Ref. 5227). Feeds on benthic invertebrates and floating organic matter (Ref. 28023).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Omnivore

Diet: benthic macroalgae, mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Anisotremus scapularis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anisotremus scapularis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Allen, G., Robertson, R., Rivera, F., Edgar, G. & Merlen, G.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and common in at least part of its range. There are no known major threats to this species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species. This species is common in western and southern regions of Galapagos. However, this species was not found in surveys at Gorgona Island coral reefs, Colombia (Zapata and Morales, 1997).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species. This species is captured in small quantities in Galapagos artisanal fisheries.
Populations of haemulid species (Orthopristis spp., Anisotremus interruptus and A. scapularis, Haemulon scudderi) declined more than 50% during 1997/98 El Nino, but populations have recoved over the subsequent two year period.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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