Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: grunt (English), burro (Espanol), vieja (Espanol)
 
Anisotremus interruptus (Gill, 1862)


Burrito grunt



Body deep, compressed, back high; head short, blunt; mouth small, low, ~ horizontal, lips fleshy; inside mouth not red; teeth in bands on jaws, outer ones larger, conical, none on center roof of mouth; a pair of conspicuous pores plus a central groove under the chin; preopercle finely serrated; dorsal continuous but deeply notched, 4th  spine longest, XII-XIII, 16-17; anal III, 8-9, 2nd   spine long and thick;  pectoral fins relatively long reaching anal origin; tail forked; scales moderate to large, rough, over entire body and head except front of snout, lips and chin, on membranes between dorsal and anal soft rays;  lines of scales above lateral line in oblique rows, front scales notably bigger; lateral-line scales 46-50; 7 scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin.


Overall silvery, sometimes with yellowish sheen; scale centre blackish, imparting a spotted pattern on sides; fins yellowish to greenish brown.

Maximum length, 90 cm.

Habitat: common on inshore rocky reefs.

Depth: 3-30 m.

Central Baja and the Gulf of California to Peru, including all the oceanic islands except Clipperton.   
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Biology

Solitary and found hiding in reefs and caves during the day (Ref. 9114). Juveniles appear in late summer and swim in schools. A nocturnal feeder on reef invertebrates (Ref. 9114). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9114).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the eastern Pacific, and is found from central Baja and the Gulf of California to Peru, including all of the oceanic islands except Clipperton Atoll.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru, including the Galapagos Islands.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 3 (S) - 30 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 90.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 457 mm TL
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Max. size

51.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)); max. published weight: 3,570 g (Ref. 40637)
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Diagnostic Description

Body compressed and deep (depth contained 2.0 to 2.1 times in standard length); mouth small and terminal with thick, fleshy lips; dorsal fin with 12 to 13 spines and 16 to 17 soft rays (XII-XIII, 16-17); pectoral fins slightly longer than head, reaching origin of anal fin; lateral line with 46 to 50 scales; scale series above lateral line oblique; body silvery yellow to green; large scales above lateral line with a dark anterior border, resembling spots; fins yellowish brown (Ref. 55763).
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Type Information

Type for Anisotremus interruptus
Catalog Number: USNM 30927
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Xantus
Locality: St. Lucas Lower Cal., Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This reef-associated species is often solitary, and can be found hiding in reefs and caves during the day (McKay and Schneider 1995) to depths of 30m. This species was also found with a frequency of 9% in estuaries associated with mangroves in Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica (Rojas et al. 1994). It is feeds on reef invertebrates at night (McKay and Schneider 1995), and forms resting schools on reefs during the day.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 3 - 30 m (Ref. 5227), usually 3 - 12 m (Ref. 5227)
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Depth range based on 21 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 7 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.3 - 12
  Temperature range (°C): 20.583 - 27.666
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.290 - 3.645
  Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 35.261
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.602 - 5.165
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 0.897
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 7.763

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.3 - 12

Temperature range (°C): 20.583 - 27.666

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.290 - 3.645

Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 35.261

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.602 - 5.165

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 0.897

Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 7.763
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 3 - 30m.
From 3 to 30 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

A nocturnal feeder on reef invertebrates (Ref. 9114). Carnivore (Ref. 57615).
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anisotremus interruptus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 15
Specimens with Barcodes: 20
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Anisotremus interruptus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

CTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGGGCTGGGATAGTAGGGACAGCCCTG---AGTCTTCTCATCCGAGCAGAACTCAGCCAACCGGGCGCCCTCCTCGGAGAC---GACCAGATTTATAATGTAATTGTTACGGCACACGCGTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATCCTAATCGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTTGTTCCTCTAATG---ATCGGAGCCCCCGACATGGCATTCCCCCGAATAAACAACATGAGCTTCTGGCTCCTCCCACCTTCCTTCCTCCTCCTCCTTGCCTCCTCAGGCGTAGAAGCCGGGGCCGGTACCGGGTGGACAGTCTACCCTCCCTTAGCCGGGAACCTAGCTCACGCCGGAGCATCTGTCGATCTA---ACAATTTTCTCCCTTCACCTAGCAGGTGTTTCCTCAATTCTTGGAGCAATTAACTTCATCACAACAATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCTGCCATTTCCCAGTACCAAACCCCACTATTTGTATGATCAGTCCTGGTTACGGCCGTTCTTCTCCTACTTTCCCTTCCGGTTCTTGCAGCC---GGCATTACAATGCTTCTCACGGACCGAAATCTAAATACCACTTTCTTCGACCCTGCCGGAGGAGGTGATCCCATTCTCTACCAACACTTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Allen, G., Robertson, R., Rivera, F., Edgar, G. & Merlen, G.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and common in at least part of its range. There are no known major threats to this species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is considered common throughout much of its range.

A survey made in Gulf Dulce, Costa Rica, showed a mean density of 0.004 ind/ m2 for this species (Figueroa, 2001). This species was considered to be rare in Los Islotes, Gulf of California, with an occurrence frequency between 10 and 15% (Aburto-Oropeza and Balart, 2001), and was not found in surveys at Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica (Dominici-Arosemena et al. 2005), nor at Gorgona Island coral reefs, Colombia (Zapata and Morales, 1997). In Bahía de Navidad, Jalisco, México, this fish was captured 10 times within 12 (one each month) field trips throughout a year (Rojo-Vázquez et al. 2001).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species. In some areas, such as in the Galapagos, this species is caught in artesanal fisheries. Populations of haemulid species (Orthopristis spp., Anisotremus interruptus and A. scapularis, Haemulon scudderi) declined more than 50% during 1997/98 El Nino, but populations have recoved over a subsequent two year period.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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