Sometimes taxonomists create new names for groups that already have a name. They may do this because they are unaware of the original name, or they may think the organism before them belongs to a different group when in fact it does not. If two or more names are found to apply to the same group, they are considered synonyms. In most cases, the first name takes priority and is considered to be the valid or accepted name. However, there can be exceptions, and it's not always easy to determine which of a series of synonyms should be considered valid or accepted. Here we list the synonyms provided to EOL by our classification partners. We also include other versions of the name that most likely refer to the same group, for example, misspellings in the literature or different variations of the authorship associated with the name.

Preferred marks the preferred name from each source.

NCBI Taxonomy

Name Relationship
Manta birostris Preferred
Manta birostris (Walbaum, 1792) Authority
Raja birostris Walbaum, 1792
Raja birostris Synonym

Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: April 2013

Name Relationship
Manta birostris (Walbaum, 1792) Preferred
Ceratoptera ehrenbergii Müller & Henle, 1841
Manta raya Baer, 1899 Ambiguous synonym
Raja manatia Bloch & Schneider, 1801
Manta hamiltoni (Hamilton & Newman, 1849)
Raja birostris Walbaum, 1792
Manta ehrenbergii (Müller and Henle, 1841)
Manta brevirostris Auctorum
Ceratoptera ehrenbergi Müller & Henle, 1841
Manta alfredi (non Krefft, 1868) Misapplied name
Ceratoptera alfredi (non Krefft, 1868)
Cephalopterus vampyrus Mitchill, 1824
Cephalopterus manta Bancroft, 1829
Ceratoptera johnii Müller & Henle, 1841
Cephaloptera stelligera Günther, 1870
Manta americana Bancroft, 1829
Brachioptilon hamiltoni Hamilton & Newman, 1849

FishBase

Name Relationship
Manta birostris (Walbaum, 1792) Preferred
Brachioptilon hamiltoni Hamilton & Newman, 1849
Cephaloptera stelligera Günther, 1870
Cephalopterus manta Bancroft, 1829
Cephalopterus vampyrus Mitchill, 1824
Ceratoptera alfredi (non Krefft, 1868)
Ceratoptera ehrenbergi Müller & Henle, 1841
Ceratoptera ehrenbergii Müller & Henle, 1841
Ceratoptera johnii Müller & Henle, 1841
Manta alfredi (non Krefft, 1868)
Manta americana Bancroft, 1829
Manta brevirostris Auctorum
Manta ehrenbergii (Müller and Henle, 1841)
Manta hamiltoni (Hamilton & Newman, 1849)
Manta raya Baer, 1899
Raja birostris Walbaum, 1792
Raja manatia Bloch & Schneider, 1801

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)

Name Relationship
Manta birostris (Walbaum, 1792) Preferred
Manta alfredi (Krefft, 1868) Junior synonym

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