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Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Valenciennes, 1840)

(Figure 12, Table 2)

Platystoma truncatum Six & Agassiz, 1829 ZBK : 27, pl. 13a. Type locality: Brazil , Japer and Solomon. Lundberg & Littmann (2003) considered this name to be a senior synonym of P. tigrinum ZBK , based on the original description, plate, and locality. These authors retained the younger name P. tigrinum ZBK for purposes of stability. There has been virtually no use of P. truncatum ZBK since its original description, and it is treated here as a nomen oblitum (sensu Lundberg & Littmann, 2003).

Platystoma tigrinum Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840 :10 [8 of Strasbourg Deluxe ed.], pl. 422. Type locality: Brazil. Holotype: MNHN A. 9354, (mounted and stuffed).

Platystoma punctatum Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840 ZBK : 20 [15 of Strasbourg Deluxe ed.]. Type locality: unknown.

Geographic distribution: Amazon River, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú , and Venezuela (Fig. 11).

FIGURE 12. Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Cuvier & Valenciennes) , holotype, MNHN A-9354. Photo by M. Jégu (MNHN).

FIGURE 13. Caudal fin of P. tigrinum , MCP 21028. Scale 5 cm.

FIGURE 14. Caudal fin of P. punctifer , INHS 38840. Scale 5 cm.

Type locality: Amazon River, no precise location

Material examined: MNHN A-9354 , ( holotype ), 900 mm SL, Amazon River , Brazil , Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire , 1840 . ANSP 103927 , (1), Iquitos market , 3°46'00"S , 73°15'00"W , Amazon River , department of Loreto , Perú , E. Hugghins , 19 June 1968 . ANSP 138995 , (1), Maranon River, near Iquitos within one mile of central station, Amazon drainage , department of Loreto , Perú , Catherwood Expedition , October 1955 . CAS 133400 , (1), Amazon River , Peru.CAS 136185 , (1), Amazon River . CAS 6379 , (1), Negro River, near Manaus, Amazon River , state of Amazonas , Brazil , W. J. Holl . CAS 78413 , (1), Santarem market, Amazon River , state of Para , Brazil , C. Ternetz , September 1924 . CAS 18290 , (1), mouth of Pacaya drainage near Bretana , Amazon River , department of Loreto , Peru , F. M. Anderson , 1915 . INHS 43959 , (1), Pampa Chica, 4.54 km W center of Iquitos , bearing, 3°45'08"S , 73°17'0.1"W , Nanay River, Amazon River , department of Loreto , Perú , M. H. Sabaj et al. , 27 July 1997 . INHS 54783 , (1), Oxbow lake, floodplain along S bank of the Maranon River due S of Nauta , 4°30.6'S , 73°34.1'W , department of LoretoPerú , M. H. Sabaj et al. , 4 August 1999 . MCP 21028 , (4), lago marginal of the Amazon River, Ilha de Sao Miguel , 1°56'S , 54°44'W , Brazil , R B. Oliveira , 26 November 1997 . SIUC 39756 , (1), Maranon River, Cocha (Oxbow lake) on the floodplain along the south bank of the Maranon River , 4º30.6'S , 73º34.1'W , department of Loreto , Perú , M. H. Sabaj et al. , 4 August 1999 . SIUC 26721 , (1), mercado Belen in Iquitos , Loreto , Perú . SIUC 39299 , (3 ds), purchased in mercado Belen in Iquitos , department of Loreto , Perú , J. G. Stewart , July 1999 . SIUC 50354 , (9 ds), mercado Belen in Iquitos , department of Loreto , Perú , J.G. Stewart , July - August 2001 . SIUC 42551 , (1), Playa Pampachica, barrio of Iquitos , 3º45'31"S , 73º16'W , Nanay River, Amazon River , department of Loreto , Perú , J. G. Stewart et al. , 7 August 1999 . SIUC 26892 , (2), old channel of the Ucayali River, Amazon River, mercado Nauta, captured ca. 20 km E , department of Loreto , Perú , B M. Burr et al. , 13 July 1994 . USNM 306825 , (1), Ressaca Da Ilha de Marchantaria, Amazon River , Brazil , P. Bayley , 19 Sept. 1978 .

Diagnosis: A species of Pseudoplatystoma ZBK distinguished by a combination of the following features: presence of loop-like bands connecting to, or extending to, dorsal region and continuing onto other side of body; loop-like bars form cells as noted in the original description (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840). This unique feature allowed for the specific epithet of "tigrinum" because of the evident resemblance to the "Royal Tiger" (see Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840, p. 11); adipose fin with small spots and some loop -like bands; no discrete dark spots on side of body.

Description: Maximum size recorded 1300 mm TL. Head moderately narrow with a long fontanel extending from mesethmoid to supraoccipital. Body widest measurement at origin of dorsal fin. Loops covering sides and top of body and not extending beyond middle lateral region of body. No spots, straight or loop - like bars on dorsal region of head. Pigmentation on ventral region of body ranging from whitish to yellowish. Spots on dorsal fin rays relatively larger than other species. Spots on the caudal fin more numerous (50-60 in P. tigrinum , 21-45 in P. punctifer ; Figs. 13 and 14). Additional differences are described and compared with the other species in Table 9. Color and pattern of adults are shown in Fig. 15.

FIGURE 15. Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (above) and P. punctifer (below) from Amazon River, near Iquitos , Perú , June 1994 . Photo by Brooks M. Burr .

TABLE 2. Descriptive measurements of the body size and shape (in mm), and number of vertebrae for P. tigrinum . Number of individuals measured, 20.

Variables mean+SD range
Standard length 274.2+60.6 191.1-384.8
Snout-posterior occipital process 110.1+22 79.9-153.2
Snout-posterior margin of the opercle 106±20.2 77.2-148.2
Maxillary barbel length 102.2±18.7 77.3-137.1
Anterior chin barbel length 110.3+20.6 70.1-144.9
Insertion maxillary barbel-eye 42.6±8.4 32-58.6
Insertion maxillary barbel-joint pectoral spine 84.3+16.9 61.7-117.3
Insertion maxillary barbel-joint dorsal spine 118.8+24.4 169-184.7
Eye-joint pectoral spine 44.9+8.6 33-62.7
Eye-joint dorsal spine 75.8+16 54.4-110.4
Joint pectoral spine-joint dorsal spine 50.4+10.6 36.1-76.7
Joint pectoral spine-joint first pelvic ray 65.4±15.7 42.6-95.1
Joint pectoral spine-joint last ray of dorsal fin 68.4±15.3 46.4-98.8
Joint dorsal spine-joint first pelvic ray 51±12.2 33.3-76.2
Dorsal fin base length 26.5±6.6 17-38.8
Joint first pelvic ray-joint last dorsal fin ray 37.3±9.4 26-59.3
Joint first pelvic ray-anal fin origin 63.1+15 42.6-93.5
Joint first pelvic ray-origin adipose fin 67.8+16.2 50.5-104.9
Last dorsal fin ray-anal fin origin 75.2+18.7 48.6-115.9
Last dorsal fin ray-adipose fin origin 62.2+18.1 40-98.4
Anal fin origin-adipose fin origin 33.2+8.3 21.2-51.2
Anal fin base length 26.5±7 22.1-37.3
Anal fin origin-adipose fin terminus 33.4±8.2 23.4-54.3
Adipose fin origin-anal fin terminus 37.9±8.7 27.2-59.7
Adipose fin length 23.5±4.8 17.3-36.5
Anal fin terminus-adipose fin terminus 19.7±4.9 14.6-31.1
Anal fin terminus-ventral caudal fin origin 12.4+2.5 9-18.2
Anal fin terminus-dorsal caudal fin origin 21.9+4.8 14.6-31.8
Adipose fin terminus-ventral caudal fin origin 26.1+5.8 18.1-38.3
Adipose fin terminus-dorsal caudal fin origin 15.7+3.6 11.1-22.8
Caudal peduncle depth 18.6±4.3 12.8-28.9
Number of vertebrae 35.6±0.69 34-36

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