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BiologyOccurs in the sea close to shores and estuaries and in deep stretches of large rivers. Juveniles live in shallow riverine habitats (Ref. 59043). Found over mud and usually solitary. Feeds on mollusks, amphipods and chironomid larvae. Spawns from end of April to June (end of May in Rioni River, Black Sea) (Ref. 3193). Spawning takes place in strong-current habitats in main course of large and deep rivers on stone or gravel bottom (Ref. 59043).