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BiologyThis is mainly a nocturnal species which usually forms schools. Schools from several hundred to more than 100 m long and 20 m wide (Ref. 9760). Feeds mostly at night when the school disperse. Feeds on a variety of planktonic crustaceans. Preyed upon by sharks, tunas, long toms, and amberjacks which swim alongside the school. Among its other predators are crested terns, gannets, sea-gulls and herons.