Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits swamps, lakes and rivers (Ref. 9987), among vegetation (Ref. 56749). Enters flooded forest (Ref. 9497). Found in medium to large rivers and stagnant water bodies including sluggish flowing canals (Ref. 12975). Omnivorous. Feeds on both plants and animals such as some aquatic weeds, fish, frogs, earthworms and sometimes dead animals (Ref. 6459). Can breathe moist air, so can be kept alive for long periods out of water, making it possible to distribute it in areas lacking a cold chain (Ref. 9987). Was reported from miocene deposits in Central Sumatra (Ref. 7426). Utilized fresh and eaten steamed, pan-fried and baked (Ref. 9987).
  • Roberts, T.R. 1992 Systematic revision of the Southeast Asian anabantoid fish genus Osphronemus, with descriptions of two new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):351-360. (Ref. 7425)
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Distribution

Range Description

The species is widely distributed from the lower Mekong basin (Cambodia and Viet Nam) to the Mae Khlong in Thailand, and the Malay Peninsula and Indonesia (Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan (e.g., the Kapuas River; Kottelat and Widjanarti 2005). The species has been widely introduced to several countries for aquaculture purposes. Apparently absent in Sarawak and presence in Sabah may be due to relatively late introductions.
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Asia: probably limited to Sumatra, Borneo, Java, the Malay Peninsula, Thailand and Indochina (Mekong basin). Has been introduced to several countries for aquaculture purposes. Apparently absent in Sarawak and presence in Sabah may be due to relatively late introductions.
  • Roberts, T.R. 1992 Systematic revision of the Southeast Asian anabantoid fish genus Osphronemus, with descriptions of two new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):351-360. (Ref. 7425)
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Southeastern Asia: Sumatra, Borneo and Java, Malay Peninsula, Thailand and Indochina; introduced in Mascarenes.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12 - 14; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10 - 13; Anal spines: 9 - 13; Analsoft rays: 18 - 21; Vertebrae: 30 - 31
  • Roberts, T.R. 1992 Systematic revision of the Southeast Asian anabantoid fish genus Osphronemus, with descriptions of two new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):351-360. (Ref. 7425)
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Size

Maximum size: 271 mm SL
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Max. size

70.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 12693))
  • Rainboth, W.J. 1996 Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO Species Identification Field Guide for Fishery Purposes. FAO, Rome, 265 p. (Ref. 12693)
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Diagnostic Description

With 8-10 complete dark vertical bars in juvenile color phase; adults without vertical bars or sexual dichromatism, both sexes drab; transverse scale rows usually 6.1.12; dorsal fin spines usually 12-13 (rarely 11 or 14); soft-rayed portion of anal fin greatly enlarged, its distal margin parallel to distal margin of caudal fin; caudal fin rounded or obtusely rounded, not truncate or emarginate (Ref. 7425). Pelvic fins with first soft ray prolonged into a thread-like tentacle reaching posteriorly to or beyond hind margin of caudal fin.
  • Roberts, T.R. 1992 Systematic revision of the Southeast Asian anabantoid fish genus Osphronemus, with descriptions of two new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):351-360. (Ref. 7425)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Inhabits lowland rivers, marshlands to submontane streams. Well adaptive to impounded waters.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater; brackish; pH range: 6.5 - 8.0; dH range: 25; depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 9987)
  • Frimodt, C. 1995 Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial warmwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, England. 215 p.
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Depth range based on 15 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.25 - 6.4

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.25 - 6.4
 
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Diseases and Parasites

Anchor worm Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Shariff, M. and C. Sommerville 1986 Identification and distribution of Lernaea spp. in Peninsular Malaysia. p. 269-272. In J.L. Maclean, L.B. Dizon and L.V. Hosillos (eds.) The first Asian Fisheries Forum. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines. (Ref. 51773)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Makes nests of bubbles in which the eggs and larvae float, protected by the male (Ref. 9987).
  • Ukkatawewat, S. 2050 The taxonomic characters and biology of some important freshwater fishes in Thailand. Manuscript. National Inland Fisheries Institute, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand, 55 p. (Ref. 6459)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Vidthayanon, C.

Reviewer/s
Smith, K. & Allen, D.J.

Contributor/s

Justification
This locally common fish is widespread and well adaptive to impounded waters, its popularity on foodfish and ornamental and obtained both from wild caught and cultured. This species is abundant in all suitable habitats, it is assessed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
Locally common in suitable habitats all of its range.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Wetland degradation and pollution are possible threats to this fish, but it is not considered threatened across its range.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
None required, however populations and habitats should be monitored.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
  • Garibaldi, L. 1996 List of animal species used in aquaculture. FAO Fish. Circ. 914. 38 p. (Ref. 12108)
  • Mills, D. and G. Vevers 1989 The Tetra encyclopedia of freshwater tropical aquarium fishes. Tetra Press, New Jersey. 208 p. (Ref. 7020)
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Wikipedia

Giant gourami

The giant gourami, Osphronemus goramy, is a species of gourami believed to be originally native to Southeast Asia, with its occurrence in other locations due to introductions. This species is commercially important as a food fish and is also farmed. It can also be found in the aquarium trade.[2] The species has also been used for weed control, as it can be a voracious herbivore.[3]

It lives in fresh or brackish water, particularly slow-moving areas such as swamps, lakes, and large rivers. It is capable of breathing moist air, so can survive out of water for long periods. It is much larger than most gouramis, growing to a maximum length of 70 cm (28 in), though most are only around 45 cm (18 in). In colour, it is a pale to golden yellow, with silvery, pale blue stripes running vertically along its body.[2] Females can be identified by their thicker lips. Giant gouramis build nests using weeds and twigs.

As food[edit]

Partly in consequence of its size, the giant gourami is a significant food fish, and in its native regions it has been harvested as a customary food source. In some parts of India, it is dried and then eaten.[4] It is also a popular food fish in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisines.

In aquaria[edit]

Tank specifications[edit]

The giant gourami is also popular in aquaria. Preferably, the tank should have a dark bottom, and densely planted edges, with room left in the center of the tank for them to swim. They prefer the company of other fish of similar sizes and temperament. They are easy to keep at three months old at around 7.5 cm or 3 in long. At this age, they have a pronounced beak. They can grow rapidly given sufficient food and space to move. Even under less than ideal conditions, gourami can grow from 7.5 cm to 50 cm in four years. At this age, in addition to the rounded face, a mature giant gourami will have begun to develop the hump just above its eyes.[5]

A gourami in a community tank will snap and charge any other fish which are small enough for it to bully. Like most aquarium dwellers, giant gourami can be quickly raised with larger, more passive fish. However, if other fish are added to a tank, either large or small, they might be killed within a short period.

Diet[edit]

Gourami tend towards herbivory, preferring algae-based foods, but will eat meaty foods. An algae-based flake food, along with freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and brine shrimp, provides these fish with the proper nutrition while young. Once of significant size, they can be fed legumes, partially or fully cooked fibrous or starchy vegetables, or fruits.

Breeding[edit]

The giant gourami is an egg layer, and the male will build a bubble nest before spawning. The male and female are distinguished by the dorsal fins and body color. The dorsal fin on the male ends in a point, and the body is darker changing to nearly black during spawning. When breeding, the water in the tank should be decreased to about 20 cm (8 in) deep and the temperature should be 28°C (82°F). After spawning, the female should be removed to a separate tank as the male will jealously guard the eggs, in a captive environment, sometimes becoming aggressive towards the female. The eggs hatch in 24 hours. They must be kept in a dark aquarium.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vidthayanon, C. 2012. Osphronemus goramy. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 March 2014.
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Osphronemus goramy" in FishBase. February 2014 version.
  3. ^ FAO - Weed control
  4. ^ Cultured Gourami in Bogor, Indonesia
  5. ^ Giant gourami
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