Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found on the insular slopes (Ref. 247). Feeds on lanternfishes, boarfishes, barracudinas, and flatheads (Ref. 247). Probably ovoviviparous (Ref. 247). Defends themselves from their captors by whipping their bodies and long second dorsal spines (Ref. 247).
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Distribution

Range Description

Common all around New Caledonia, also found off the Loyalty Islands, the Chesterfield archipelago, on the Norfolk Ridge and off Vanuatu.
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Western Central Pacific: New Caledonia.
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New Caledonia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 2; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
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Size

Max. size

75 cm TL (female)
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Diagnostic Description

Conspicuous black tips on dorsal fins, black dorsal caudal margin, black ventral caudal lobe (Ref. 247).
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Occurs on upper insular slopes from 34 to 480 m, where it feeds on a variety of deepwater fishes, also on shrimps and molluscs. A small shark (maximum size approximately 80 cm) that bears live young (at least three pups per litter). Biology poorly known. It is probably, like better-known members of the genus, slow to reach maturity and having a low intrinsic rate of population increase and resilience to fisheries (this is particularly the case for deepwater species).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 320 - 340 m (Ref. 31367)
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Depth range based on 27 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 25 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 235 - 512
  Temperature range (°C): 11.018 - 18.283
  Nitrate (umol/L): 4.925 - 15.511
  Salinity (PPS): 34.898 - 35.574
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.300 - 4.398
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.484 - 1.249
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.604 - 9.507

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 235 - 512

Temperature range (°C): 11.018 - 18.283

Nitrate (umol/L): 4.925 - 15.511

Salinity (PPS): 34.898 - 35.574

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.300 - 4.398

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.484 - 1.249

Silicate (umol/l): 2.604 - 9.507
 
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Depth: 320 - 340m.
From 320 to 340 meters.

Habitat: bathydemersal. Found on the insular slopes. Feeds on lanternfishes, boarfishes, barracudinas, and flatheads. Probably ovoviviparous. Defends themselves from their captors by whipping their bodies and long second dorsal spines.
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Trophic Strategy

Found on the insular slopes. Feeds on lanternfishes, boarfishes, barracudinas, and flatheads.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2003

Assessor/s
Fowler, S.L. & Séret, B. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003)

Reviewer/s
Simpfendorfer, C., Francis, M., Fowler, S. & Musick, J.A. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is common all around New Caledonia, off the Loyalty Islands, the Chesterfield archipelago, on the Norfolk Ridge and off Vanuatu. It has been reported from a wide depth range (34 to 480 m) and there is very limited occurrence of deepsea fisheries within much of its range.
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Population

Population
No information on population size.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Not targeted by deepwater fisheries, but may be taken as bycatch, although deep-sea fisheries are very limited in New Caledonia.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are currently no conservation measures in place for this species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
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Wikipedia

Blacktailed spurdog

The blacktailed spurdog, Squalus melanurus, is a dogfish, a member of the family Squalidae, found around New Caledonia in the central Pacific Ocean, at depths from 320 to 320 m. Its length is up to 75 cm.

Its reproduction is ovoviviparous.

Parasites[edit]

The blacktailed spurdog has been seldom studied for parasites. The 1 mm-long monogenean Triloculotrema chisholmae has been described in 2009 from three specimens found in the nasal tissue of a single shark caught off New Caledonia.[1] T. chisholmae was the second species described in the genus Triloculotrema Kearn, 1993 (family Monocotylidae).[2] Species of Triloculotrema appear to be limited to deep-sea sharks, either triakids or squalids (possibly etmopterids).[1]
The blacktailed spurdog is also the host of external parasites such as the aegiid isopod Aega angustata on the skin.[3] Internal parasites include several trypanorhynch cestodes in the spiral intestine, such as Vittirhynchus squali and Gilquinia sp.[4]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Justine, J.-L. 2009: A new species of Triloculotrema Kearn, 1993 (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from a deep-sea shark, the blacktailed spurdog Squalus melanurus (Squaliformes: Squalidae), off New Caledonia. Systematic Parasitology, 74, 59-63. doi:10.1007/s11230-009-9202-x
  2. ^ Kearn, G. C. 1993: Triloculotrema japanicae n.g., n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the olfactory sacs of the Japanese topeshark Hemitriakis japanica (Müller & Henle, 1839) (Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae). Systematic Parasitology, 26, 53-57.
  3. ^ Trilles, J.-P. & Justine, J.-L. 2004: Une nouvelle espèce de Cymothoidae et trois Aegidae (Crustacea, Isopoda) récoltés sur des poissons de mer profonde au large de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Zoosystema, 26, 211-233.
  4. ^ Beveridge, I. & Justine, J.-L. 2006: Gilquiniid cestodes (Trypanorhyncha) from elasmobranch fishes off New Caledonia with descriptions of two new genera and a new species. Systematic Parasitology, 65, 235-249. doi:10.1007/s11230-006-9052-8
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