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BiologyInhabits continental shelves and uppermost slopes. Found in 60 to 380 m deep (Ref. 26938). Found on or near the bottom in large, dense schools. Probably feeds on bottom fishes and invertebrates. Ovoviviparous, with about 10 young per litter. A huge parasite (isopod) lives in its buccal cavity. Seldom used for food, but taken in commercial catches for its liver which yields oil and vitamins. Maximum depth reported taken from Ref. 55584.