Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits continental shelves and uppermost slopes. Found in 60 to 380 m deep (Ref. 26938). Found on or near the bottom in large, dense schools. Probably feeds on bottom fishes and invertebrates. Ovoviviparous, with about 10 young per litter. A huge parasite (isopod) lives in its buccal cavity. Seldom used for food, but taken in commercial catches for its liver which yields oil and vitamins. Maximum depth reported taken from Ref. 55584.
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Western Atlantic: North Carolina to Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Cuba, Hispanola; southern Brazil and Argentina
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Range Description

Schools probably present below 100 m in the Portobelo area (Panama, Caribbean Coast, Colon Province) and in the San. Andres archipelago area.
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Western Atlantic: North Carolina to Florida (USA), Gulf of Mexico, Cuba, Hispaniola; southern Brazil and Argentina.
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Western Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 1100 mm TL
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Max. size

110 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 247))
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Diagnostic Description

A slim, gray shark with tips of dorsal fins black and edges of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fins white; two dorsal fins each with strong, ungrooved spine at front edge (Ref. 26938).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This warm-temperate and tropical shark inhabits continental shelves and uppermost slopes. Found on or near the bottom in large, dense schools at depths between 60 and 380 m, never found in surface waters. Probably feeds on bottom fishes and invertebrates Ovoviviparous, with about 10 young per litter (Compagno 1984). Nothing else is known of its biology or life history.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 60 - 400 m (Ref. 247)
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Depth range based on 61 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 29 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 16 - 585
  Temperature range (°C): 8.084 - 19.753
  Nitrate (umol/L): 3.423 - 30.656
  Salinity (PPS): 32.324 - 36.588
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.604 - 6.121
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.427 - 1.929
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.258 - 18.759

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 16 - 585

Temperature range (°C): 8.084 - 19.753

Nitrate (umol/L): 3.423 - 30.656

Salinity (PPS): 32.324 - 36.588

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.604 - 6.121

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.427 - 1.929

Silicate (umol/l): 2.258 - 18.759
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 60 - 380m.
From 60 to 380 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Found on the continental shelf and uppermost slopes in large dense schools. Probably feeds on bottom fishes and invertebrates. Ovoviviparous, with about 10 young per litter. A huge parasite (isopod) lives in its buccal cavity. Seldom used for food, but taken in commercial catches for its liver which yields oil and vitamins.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Ovoviviparous, with about 10 young per litter.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Squalus cubensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCCTTTATTTAATCTTTGGTGCATGAGCAGGAATAGTAGGTACCGCCCTT---AGCTTACTTATTCGAGCAGAATTAAGCCAGCCTGGAACACTTCTGGGAGAT---GATCAAATCTATAATGTTATCGTAACTGCTCACGCTTTTGTAATAATCTTTTTCATAGTCATGCCTGTAATAATCGGTGGATTCGGAAACTGATTAGTACCTTTAATA---ATCGGTGCACCAGACATAGCTTTTCCACGGATAAATAATATAAGCTTTTGATTGTTGCCCCCGTCCCTCCTGTTACTCTTAGCCTCTGCTGGTGTAGAAGCAGGAGCCGGAACCGGCTGAACAGTCTACCCCCCGCTAGCAGGTAATATAGCCCATGCTGGCGCATCCGTAGACCTG---GCCATCTTCTCACTCCATTTGGCTGGTATTTCCTCAATTTTAGCCTCTATTAATTTTATCACAACTATTATTAACATAAAACCTCCTGCCATCTCTCAGTATCAAACACCACTCTTTGTTTGATCTATCCTTGTAACCACCGTTCTTCTTCTTCTTTCCCTCCCTGTCCTCGCAGCC---GCAATTACGATACTATTAACTGACCGTAATTTAAACACAACATTTTTTGATCCTGCTGGGGGAGGAGACCCAATTCTCTACCAACACTTA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Squalus cubensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 104
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2006

Assessor/s
Monzini, J.

Reviewer/s
Heupel, M. & Simpfendorfer, C. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This warm-temperate and tropical dogfish of the continental shelf and uppermost slopes, schools on or near the bottom at depths of 60 to 380 m. Ranges from the east coast of the USA, parts of the Caribbean, to southern Brazil and Argentina. Reaches a maximum size of 110 cm total length and produces about 10 young per litter. Separate catch statistics are not reported for this species and nothing is known of its population. The little information available just refers to Squalus cubensis as by-catch of artisanal and commercial fisheries in the Caribbean. Mainly caught in the northern gulf of Mexico, although details are lacking and this species cannot be assessed beyond Data Deficient at this time. Where taken, catches require monitoring, particularly as deepwater fisheries expand worldwide.
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Population

Population
Separate catch statistics are not reported for this species and therefore nothing is known of the population.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Mainly caught in the northern Gulf of Mexico (FAO 2002, Rodriguez 1996 ) although separate statistics are not reported for this species. Taken as by-catch in the San Andres Archipelago industrial fishery (Caldas 2002) and Panamanian artisanal fishery (Monzini 2004). Possible threat from a potential increase of deep sea fishery.
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Data deficient (DD)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Like many deeper water species more information on biology, ecology and importance in fisheries are required to further assess status and any future conservation needs. Where taken, catches require monitoring, particularly as deepwater fisheries expand worldwide.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this genus
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Wikipedia

Cuban dogfish

The Cuban dogfish (Squalus cubensis) is a dogfish, a member of the family Squalidae in the order Squaliformes. It is found in the Western Atlantic from North Carolina to Florida, in the Gulf of Mexico, around Cuba, Hispaniola, southern Brazil and Argentina. It inhabits continental shelves and uppermost slopes at depths from 60 to 380 m. Its length is up to 110 cm.

It is a slim, gray shark with black tips to its dorsal fins black and at the edges of its pectoral fins, its pelvic and caudal fins are white; It possess a spine at front edge of each of its two dorsal fans.

It probably feeds on bottom fishes and invertebrates. The isopod parasites which commonly infest the mouth and gills of marine fish are unusually large in the Cuban dogfish. Its reproduction is ovoviviparous, with 10 pups in a litter.

It is not generally utilized for food, but taken commercially for the oil and vitamins extracted from its liver.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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