Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabit deep waters (Ref. 4570). Epibenthic-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Bear live young. Gregarious throughout life. Feed on euphausiids, hyperiids, cephalopods, chaetognaths and small fishes. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 4570). Longevity was determined from isotope ratios and given as at least 65 years in general and at least 75 years in the waters off Nova Scotia (Ref. 45673).
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Western Atlantic: Baffin Bay to Long Island, NY
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Range Description

Sebastes mentella has a range that extends across the northern Atlantic, from Baffin Bay down to Nova Scotia on the western coast, across to the Norwegian Sea down to Loften Island. Its range also includes the western and northern coasts of Spitsbergen, the Iceland-Faroes Ridge, Iceland and Greenland. In places, its range coincides with the closely related species, Sebastes fasciatus.
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Eastern Atlantic: Norwegian Sea from Lofoten Island northward to the western and northern coasts of Spitsbergen; southern part of the Barents Sea rarely to 35°E , on the Iceland-Faroes Ridge, Iceland and Greenland. Western Atlantic: Baffin Bay to Nova Scotia in Canada (Ref. 7251).
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North Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 400 mm TL
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Max. size

58.0 cm NG (male/unsexed; (Ref. 58426)); max. reported age: 75 years (Ref. 45673)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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inhabit deep waters; bear live young; gregarious throughout life
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Sebastes mentella is a benthic/mesopelagic species that inhabits deep water from 300–750 m, though it may be found deeper to 1,000 m. Catch data indicate that spawning occurs in April to mid-May (Sigurdsson et al. 2006); the females release live larvae which are transported widely through planktonic drift (Pikanowski et al. 1998). Longevity was determined from isotope ratios and estimated to be at least 65 years for most subpopulations, and at least 75 years in the waters off Nova Scotia.

Sebastes fasciatus and Sebastes mentella are hard to distinguish and within fisheries they are occasionally considered the same stock (Roques et al. 2002). This species is known to hybridise with Sebastes fasciatus (Roques et al. 2001).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 300 - 1441 m (Ref. 58426)
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Depth range based on 73 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 61 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 73 - 2350
  Temperature range (°C): 0.191 - 8.149
  Nitrate (umol/L): 7.461 - 21.618
  Salinity (PPS): 33.401 - 35.267
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.109 - 7.347
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.608 - 1.580
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.097 - 17.531

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 73 - 2350

Temperature range (°C): 0.191 - 8.149

Nitrate (umol/L): 7.461 - 21.618

Salinity (PPS): 33.401 - 35.267

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.109 - 7.347

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.608 - 1.580

Silicate (umol/l): 3.097 - 17.531
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 300 - 910m.
From 300 to 910 meters.

Habitat: bathypelagic. Inhabits deep waters. Bears live young. Gregarious throughout life. Feeds on euphausiids, hyperiids, cephalopods, chaetognaths and small fishes. Ovoviviparous.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

nhabit deep waters (Ref. 4570). Epibenthic-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Bear live young. Gregarious throughout life. Feed on euphausiids, hyperiids, cephalopods, chaetognaths and small fishes. Longevity was determined from isotope ratios and given as at least 65 years in general and at least 75 years in the waters off Nova Scotia (Ref. 45673). Preyed upon by Atlantic halibut, Atlantic cod, swordfish and harbor seals. Parasites of the species include nematode, cestodes, trematodes and copepod (Ref. 5951).
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feed on euphausiids, hyperiids, cephalopods, chaetognaths and small fishes
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Life Cycle

Ovoviviparous.
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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 75 years (wild)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sebastes mentella

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sebastes mentella

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Acero, A., Gordon, J.D.M. & Murdy, E.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.

Justification
Sebastes mentella has been assessed as Least Concern. It has a wide range in the northern Atlantic and while the species is harvested as a commercial food source, this is managed under both ICES and NAFO and the species is not showing signs of significant population declines. Further research is needed on sub-stocks to establish if there are regional significant declines that could become more widespread.
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for Sebastes mentella.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Sebastes mentella is a major commercial species that is harvested as a food source throughout its range. Global catch statistics for the last 10 years are as follows:

1996 - 4,842 tonnes (t); 1997 - 5,234 t; 1998 - 4,619 t; 1999 - 25,043 t; 2000 - 76,328 t; 2001 - 98,662 t; 2002 - 92,896 t; 2003 - 95,478 t; 2004 - 85,190 t; 2005 - 50,843 t; 2006 - 61,500 t (FAO-FIGIS).

This fishery is continually monitored by both ICES and NAFO. While it is a major commercial fishery, there is no indication that it is being over-exploited at present. A genetic divide between the populations on either side of the Atlantic is lacking, meaning that overfishing by North America or European countries would likely impact the reproduction of all the stocks (Roques et al. 2002).
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are country-specific management plans in place for Sebastes mentella. In 1996, the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) established a total allowable catch limit of 153,000 t for the NEAFC Convention Area. In 2001, this was revised to 95,000 t. This species is continually assessed and managed by ICES and NAFO.

Further research is needed on the population dynamics of stocks within fishing zones to establish if particular stocks are being over-exploited.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
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Wikipedia

Deepwater redfish

Deepwater redfish on a stamp of Postverk Føroya (Faroe Islands), 2006.

The Deepwater redfish (Sebastes mentella), also known as the Beaked redfish, ocean perch,[2] Atlantic redfish, Norway haddock, red perch, golden redfish, or hemdurgan, may reach a size of 55–70 centimetres (22–28 in), but is usually less than 45 centimetres (18 in). It lives in comparatively high concentrations in the North Atlantic, for example in the Irminger Sea where considerable numbers are fished. It occupies depths between 300 and 1,000 metres (980 and 3,300 ft) and is often pelagic, i.e. far off the bottom. The deep-sea redfish feeds on a variety of food organisms, for example small fishes. In contrast to most fishes that spawn unfertilised eggs, the deepwater redfish has internal fertilisation and spawns free-living larvae.

S. mentella is very similar in appearance to the Acadian redfish (Sebastes fasciatus).

Sustainable consumption[edit]

In 2010, Greenpeace International has added the deepwater redfish to its seafood red list. "The Greenpeace International seafood red list is a list of fish that are commonly sold around the world, and which have a very high risk of being sourced from unsustainable fisheries."[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Sebastes mentella" in FishBase. December 2012 version.
  2. ^ Iucn Red List
  3. ^ Greenpeace International Seafood Red list
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