Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabit sandy and muddy bottoms of coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 2683). Sometimes found in freshwater (Ref. 2135). Feeds on fish and benthic crustaceans (Ref. 28587) as well as on mollusks and worms (Ref. 27121).
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Distribution

Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania (Ref. 7376) to southern Angola (Ref. 2799).
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Eastern Atlantic: west African coast from Senegel to Namibia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 17; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9
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Size

Maximum size: 600 mm TL
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Max. size

60.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2135))
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Ecology

Habitat

Kunene River Demersal Habitat

This taxon is one of a number of demersal species in the Kunene River system. Demersal river fish are found at the river bottom, feeding on benthos and zooplankton

The Kunene River rises in the central highlands of Angola, and thence flows southward to form a major element of the border between Namibia and Angola before the final discharge is to the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of the Angola-Benguela Front. The geometry of the Kunene riparian zone is distinctly narrow, with rugged arid landscapes persisting on both sides of the river over long distances, and a virtual lack of any extensive floodplains.

There is a relatively high rate of endemism of aquatic biota in the Kunene. Proposed expansion of dams on the Kunene poses a threat to biodiversity in the river, especially regarding proposals at Epupa Falls. However, a greater threat to the Kunene is a plan by Angola to greatly expand withdrawal of water from the river to expand irrigated agriculture by 600,000 hectares; not only will this action significantly diminish downriver flow rates, but also add considerable nitrate, herbicide and pesticide substances to the river.

The catchment area of the Kunene Basin is approximately 106,560 square kilometres (41,143 square miles) in area, of which 14 100 km² (13%) lies within Namibian territory. Its mean annual discharge is 174 cubic meters per second (6145 cubic feet per second) at its mouth on the Atlantic. Water quality of the Kunene River is relatively high, since the human population density and agricultural intensity is relatively low, including a conspicuous absence of overgrazing. However, bacteria and other microbial pathogens pose a material threat to Kunene water quality, due to the fact that only a small fraction of the domestic wastewater in Angola is treated;

Regarding freshwater bivalves, the central reaches of the Kunene manifest particularly high endemism, similar to parts of the Okavango, Chobe, Upper Zambezi and Etosha Pan basins. The bivalve Etheria elliptica, which also occurs in the Upper Zambezi, is a freshwater mussel in the family Etheriidae, known from a limited extent of the central Kunene River in Angola. It is threatened by proposed dam construction on the Kunene.

There are two endemic denmersal fish in the Kunene: the 26 centimeter (cm) long demersal Kunene happy (Sargochromis coulteri) and the demersal fish Hippopotamyrus longilateralis.

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Environment

demersal; freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range ? - 100 m (Ref. 6946), usually 20 - 50 m (Ref. 2683)
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 10 - 13

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 10 - 13
 
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Depth: 0 - 100m.
Recorded at 100 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabit sandy and muddy bottoms of coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 2683). Sometimes found in freshwater (Ref. 2135). Feeds on fish and benthic crustaceans (Ref. 28587) as well as on mollusks and worms (Ref. 27121).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pomadasys jubelini

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: high; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Disclaimer

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