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Overview

Brief Summary

The ballan wrasse lives in warm waters and migrates to the north in the summer. When they return again in the winter because the water in the north is too cold, they sometimes stay awhile in the North Sea. That is why they are occassionally caught by fishermen. Ballan wrasse like rocks and make their nest in the crevices. This nest is fastened with threads of slime. These fish are are born as females but change into males after around ten years.
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Comprehensive Description

Labrus bergylta ZBK Ascanius, 1767

Sea of Marmara : 18600-512 (1 spc.), June 2000 , Offshore of Samatya , trammel net , L. Eryilmaz, M. Özulug .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 48-48, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Biology

Adults are found in littoral (10-20 m) zone around rocks, offshore reefs, and seaweed. Young often in intertidal areas. All are born females and change sex when they are 4-14 years old (Ref. 35388). One (or more) female spawns in nest of algae, built by male in a crevice. Feed on crustaceans and mollusks (Ref. 4742). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
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Description

 Labrus bergylta is a heavy bodied wrasse with a broad head, small mouth and thick lips. The colouration of this wrasse is variable but there are no external differences between the sexes. The body, head and fins are often brownish red or reddish with numerous small white spots but can be greenish with white spots or irregular large vertical dark stripes. Young Labrus bergylta are often bright emerald green. Labrus bergylta can grow up to 50 cm long but is rarely over 30 cm in length.
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Description

The ballan wrasse is the largest of the European wrasse species reaching a maximum length of 60cm. It is a heavily built fish with a deep-sided body, large head, fleshy lips and pointed snout. The coloration is very variable and depends on the age and reproductive state. Young fish which inhabit rockpools on the low shore are often emerald green whilst adults are usually mottled greenish-brown or occasionally reddish with paler spots. The scales of this species are often conspicuous as each has a dark rim and a pale centre, giving the fish an overall spotty appearance. The large size of the ballan wrasse and the characteristic deep, bulky body distinguish it from other wrasse species.
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Distribution

Range Description

In the Eastern Atlantic, this species is present from Norway to Morocco, including the Azores, Madeira, Selvagens and the Canary Islands.

In the Mediterranean Sea, there are some questionable records from the Adriatic and Marmara Seas and elsewhere (Quignard and Pras 1986). It is absent from the Levant (Golani et al. 2006).
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Eastern Atlantic: Norway to Morocco, including Madeira, the Azores and the Canary Islands. Doubtful records from Mediterranean, Adriatic and Marmara seas (Ref. 4742).
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Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Norway to Morocco including Madeira.
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This species is widespread all around the coasts of Britain and Ireland.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 600 mm SL
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Max. size

65.9 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637)); max. published weight: 4,350 g (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 29 years (Ref. 6843)
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Diagnostic Description

Body rather massive. Mouth small with thick lips and large conical teeth. Coloration very variable, brownish and greenish predominating (Ref. 35388).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found mainly in inshore waters (10-20 m depth) around rocks, offshore reefs and amongst seaweeds. Young individuals are often found in intertidal areas. It feeds on crustaceans and molluscs (Quignard and Pras 1986).

All individuals are born females, and they change sex when they are between four and 14 years old (Muus and Nielsen 1999). One (or more) females spawn in a nest built of algae by the male in a rocky crevice. The male guards the nest for one to two weeks until the eggs hatch (Muus and Nielsen 1999). The larvae are pelagic.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 5292), usually 2 - 30 m (Ref. 35388)
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Depth range based on 571 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 113 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 113
  Temperature range (°C): 9.022 - 12.270
  Nitrate (umol/L): 4.757 - 10.273
  Salinity (PPS): 34.355 - 35.382
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.854 - 6.358
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.335 - 0.697
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.311 - 4.593

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 113

Temperature range (°C): 9.022 - 12.270

Nitrate (umol/L): 4.757 - 10.273

Salinity (PPS): 34.355 - 35.382

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.854 - 6.358

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.335 - 0.697

Silicate (umol/l): 2.311 - 4.593
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 Labrus bergylta is found in inshore waters amongst weed covered rocks or in lower shore pools. It is also found in the algal zone on rocky coasts from 5-30 m
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Depth: 1 - 50m.
From 1 to 50 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Littoral (10 - 20 m) around rocks, offshore reefs, and seaweed. Young often in intertidal areas. One (or more) female spawns in nest of algae, built by male in a crevice. Feed on crustaceans and molluscs (Ref. 4742).
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The ballan wrasse is usually found in the vicinity of steep rock faces or boulder slopes at depths down to 30m. Emerald green juveniles are occasionally found in seaweed covered rockpools on the low shore. The diet consists mainly of molluscs that live attached to the seabed e.g. mussels (Mytilus edulis) and crustaceans.
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Trophic Strategy

Littoral (10 - 20 m) around rocks, offshore reefs, and seaweed. Young often in intertidal areas. One (or more) female spawns in nest of algae, built by male in a crevice. Feed on crustaceans, molluscs (Ref. 4742) and sea urchins (Ref. 55064). Important predators of sea urchins in Azorean coastal habitats (Ref. 55064).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Eggs are laid in nest built from algae; male guards nest 1-2 weeks until larvae hatch (Ref. 35388; larvae are pelagic.
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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 29 years
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Labrus bergylta

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 10 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AAAGATATTGGCACCCTTTATCTCGTATTTGGCGCTTGAGCCGGAATGGTAGGCACTGCTTTA---AGTTTGCTCATTCGAGCAGAACTTAGCCAACCAGGGGCCCTCCTCGGAGAT---GACCAAATTTACAACGTAATCGTCACGGCACATGCGTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATAATCGGGGGCTTCGGGAACTGACTTATCCCCCTAATG---ATTGGGGCTCCCGATATGGCTTTCCCTCGAATAAACAACATGAGCTTCTGACTCCTCCCCCCCTCCTTCCTCCTCCTCCTCGCCTCTTCTGGGGTAGAAGCCGGAGCAGGCACCGGATGAACAGTATACCCCCCTCTAGCAGGAAACCTGGCCCACGCGGGAGCATCCGTTGATCTC---ACTATCTTTTCCCTTCACCTAGCAGGTATCTCTTCAATTTTAGGCGCTATTAATTTTATTACAACCATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCTGCCATCTCACAATATCAGACCCCTCTGTTTGTATGATCCGTGCTGATCACCGCTGTCCTACTCCTCCTCTCACTTCCTGTTCTTGCAGCT---GGTATCACAATGCTCCTCACAGATCGCAACCTTAACACCACCTTCTTTGACCCTGCTGGAGGCGGAGATCCTATTCTTTACCAACMCCTGTTCTGATTTTTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Labrus bergylta

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 12
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Pollard, D.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the northeast Atlantic and there appears to be no major threats to this species. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
There was apparently a decrease in the Turkish population during the 1970s (M. Bilecenoglu pers. comm. 2007) but this may have been misidentifications of L. viridis.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Ballan wrasse

The Ballan wrasse, Labrus bergylta, is a species of wrasse native to the northeastern Atlantic Ocean from Norway to Morocco, including the islands of Madeira, the Azores and the Canary Islands. They can be found at depths from 1 to 50 m (3.3 to 164.0 ft) amongst rocks, seaweed and reefs. It can grow to 65.9 cm (25.9 in) in total length (though most do not exceed 50 cm (20 in) standard length), and the greatest recorded weight of this species is 4.4 kg (9.7 lb). All Ballan wrasses are female for their first four to 14 years before a few change into males. Large Ballan wrasses are almost certainly male.[2]

This species is popular as a food fish in the Orkney Islands and in Galway.[3]

In recent years, it has become a popular catch-and-release target for sport fishermen using light fishing tackle, particularly those employing soft plastic lures.[4]

It can also be used to clean sea lice from Norwegian farmed salmon;[5] the technique is also being developed in Scotland.[6]

This species can also be found in the aquarium trade.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pollard, D. 2010. Labrus bergylta. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Labrus bergylta" in FishBase. August 2013 version.
  3. ^ Alan Davidson, North Atlantic Seafood, 1979, ISBN 0-670-51524-8.
  4. ^ David Erwin, Bernard Picton, "Guide to Inshore Marine Life" The Marine Conservation Society 1987 ISBN 0-907151-34-5
  5. ^ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100423215021.htm
  6. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-business-19878554


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