Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits deep, cold waters over steep continental slopes, ocean ridges and sea-mounts. Shallow range of usual occurrence from Ref. 27121. Appears to be dispersed over both rough bottoms and steep, rough grounds where it feeds on crustaceans and fish. In New Zealand, the main prey include mesopelagic and benthopelagic prawns, fish, and squid, with other organisms such as mysids, amphipods and euphausiids occasionally being important (Ref. 9072). Juveniles feed mainly on crustaceans (Ref. 27075, 27076). Grows very slowly and is one of the longest lived fish species known. Based on parasite and trace-element analyses, orange roughy is a sedentary species with little movement between fish-management zones (Ref. 27089). Little is known of the larvae and juveniles which are probably confined to deep water (Ref. 27088). The fishery targets sporadically formed dense spawning and non-spawning aggregations. Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Because of severe overfishing the species has been listed as threatened by the Australian Government in 2006.
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Description

 The orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus is a member of the slimehead family. It has a deep and compressed body that may reach up to 75 cm in length. It has a large head with an oblique mouth and large eyes. Its dorsal fin is moderately long and has spines at the anterior end. Its tail is slender and forked with spines on each lobe. A median ridge of scutes is present on the abdomen. Alive, it is bright brick red in colour but fades to a yellowish orange after death.The orange roughy is a slow-growing species that is late to mature, resulting in a very low resilience. It is notable for its great age reaching up to 149 years of age and its importance to commercial deep trawl fishery (Whitehead et al., 1986).
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Distribution

from the Davis Strait west of the Southern tip of Greenland to the Labrador shelf and north east Newfoundland shelf and the Grand Banks
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Western Atlantic: Gulf of Maine (Ref. 4784) [in error according to Moore (Fishes of the Gulf of Maine, in press), should be off northern Nova Scotia]. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland to Morocco; Walvis Bay, Namibia to off Durban, South Africa. Indo-Pacific: south-central Indian Ocean and New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: Chile (Ref. 27363). Several stocks may exist as suggested by distinct spawning sites and seasons.
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Atlantic and Indo-West Pacific (not in eastern Pacific).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 4 - 6; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 19; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 10 - 12
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Size

Maximum size: 690 mm TL
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Max. size

75.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 36696)); max. published weight: 7,000 g (Ref. 36697); max. reported age: 149 years (Ref. 3680)
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Diagnostic Description

Bright brick-red in color, mouth and gill cavity bluish black (Ref. 4181). Ventral scutes: 19-25.
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Inhabits deep, cold waters over steep continental slopes, ocean ridges and sea-mounts. Appears to be dispersed over both rough bottoms and steep, rough grounds where it feeds on crustaceans and fish.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 180 - 1809 m (Ref. 6390), usually 400 - 900 m (Ref. 3583)
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Depth range based on 9050 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 7513 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 328 - 1677.5
  Temperature range (°C): 2.685 - 9.839
  Nitrate (umol/L): 17.002 - 39.836
  Salinity (PPS): 34.254 - 35.698
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.538 - 6.246
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.053 - 2.582
  Silicate (umol/l): 7.241 - 83.725

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 328 - 1677.5

Temperature range (°C): 2.685 - 9.839

Nitrate (umol/L): 17.002 - 39.836

Salinity (PPS): 34.254 - 35.698

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.538 - 6.246

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.053 - 2.582

Silicate (umol/l): 7.241 - 83.725
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 The orange roughy is a bathypelagic species, inhabiting deep, cold waters over steep continental slopes from 150 m to over 1800 m depth.
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Depth: 180 - 1809m.
From 180 to 1809 meters.

Habitat: benthopelagic. Inhabits deep, cold (4-7°C) waters over steep continental slopes, ocean ridges and sea-mounts. Appears to be dispersed over both rough bottoms and steep, rough grounds where it feeds on crustaceans and fish. In New Zealand, the main prey include mesopelagic and benthopelagic prawns, fish, and squid, with other organisms such as mysids, amphipods and euphausiids occasionally being important (Ref. 9072). Grows very slowly and is one of the longest lived fish species known. The fishery targets sporadically formed dense spawning and non-spawning aggregations. Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Found on the continental slope (Ref. 75154). Orange roughy feed opportunistically on bentho-pelagic and meso-pelagic fish, crustaceans, and squid. Juveniles feed mainly on crustaceans whereas adults prefer fish and squids. They appear to have moderately high rates of food consumption (Ref. 27075). Dietary changes may be linked to modifications in morphology with growth (Ref. 27076). Little is known of the larvae and juveniles, which do not appear to aggregate (Ref. 6390).
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on prawns, mysids, amphipods, euphausiids and fishes including cardinalfish and lanternfish
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Life Cycle

Orange roughy are synchronous annual spawners (Ref. 7030). They form dense spawning aggregations over sea hills and slopes. Eggs and sperms are shed into the water at the same time. Individual males appear to spawn over a 1-2 week period and females spawn for up to 1 week. Little is known of the larvae and juveniles.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hoplostethus atlanticus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 116
Specimens with Barcodes: 164
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Wikipedia

Orange roughy

The orange roughy, red roughy, slimehead or deep sea perch, Hoplostethus atlanticus, is a relatively large deep-sea fish belonging to the slimehead family (Trachichthyidae). The Marine Conservation Society has categorized orange roughy as "vulnerable to exploitation." It is found in 3 to 9 °C (37 to 48 °F), deep (bathypelagic, 180 to 1,800 m (590 to 5,910 ft)) waters of the Western Pacific Ocean, eastern Atlantic Ocean (from Iceland to Morocco; and from Walvis Bay, Namibia, to off Durban, South Africa), Indo-Pacific (off New Zealand and Australia), and in the Eastern Pacific off Chile. The orange roughy is notable for its extraordinary lifespan, up to 149 years determined by scientific methods. It is important to commercial deep-trawl fisheries. The fish is actually a bright, brick-red color; however, the orange roughy fades to a yellowish orange after death.

Like other slimeheads, the orange roughy is slow-growing and late to mature, resulting in a very low resilience. They are extremely susceptible to overfishing because of this, and many stocks (especially those off New Zealand and Australia, which were first exploited in the late 1970s) have already crashed; recently discovered substitute stocks are rapidly dwindling. The flesh is firm with a mild flavour; it is sold skinned and filleted, fresh or frozen.[1]

Physical description[edit]

Fish in the Faroe Islands:
Orange roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus
Faroese stamp issued: 7 Feb 1994
Artist: Astrid Andreasen

The orange roughy is not a vertically slender fish.

The rounded head is riddled with muciferous canals (part of the lateral line system), as is typical of slimeheads. The single dorsal fin contains four to six spines and 15 to 19 soft rays; the anal fin contains three spines and 10 to 12 soft rays. The 19 to 25 ventral scutes (modified scales) form a hard, bony median ridge between the pelvic fins and anus. The pectoral fins contain 15-18 soft rays each; the pelvic fins are thoracic and contain one spine and six soft rays; the caudal fin is forked. The interior of the mouth and gill cavity is a bluish black; the mouth itself is large and strongly oblique. The scales are ctenoid and adherent. The lateral line is uninterrupted, with 28 to 32 scales whose spinules or 'ctenii' largely obscure the lateral line's pores. The eyes are large.

The orange roughy is the largest known slimehead species at a maximum standard length (a measurement which excludes the tail fin) of 75 cm (30 in) and a maximum weight of 7 kg (15 lb). The average commercial catch size is commonly between 35 and 45 cm in length. The name orange roughy was renamed from the less gastronomically appealing slimehead through a US National Marine Fisheries Service program during the late 1970s, which identified (then) underused species that should be renamed to make them more marketable.[2]

Due to its longevity, the orange roughy accumulates large amounts of mercury in its tissues,[3] having a range of 0.30-0.86 ppm compared with an average mercury level of 0.086 ppm for other edible fish.[4] Based on average consumption and the recommendations of a National Marine Fisheries Service study, in 1976, the FDA set the maximum safe mercury level for fish at 1 ppm.[4] Regular consumption of orange roughy can have adverse effects on health.[5][6] Compared to most edible fish, orange roughy are a very poor source of omega-3 fatty acids, averaging less than 3.5 kg.

Life history[edit]

A preserved specimen on display at a museum.

Orange roughy are generally sluggish and demersal; they form aggregations with a natural population density of up to 2.5 fish per square meter, now reduced to about 1.0 per square meter. These aggregations form in and around geologic structures, such as undersea canyons and seamounts, where water movement and mixing is high—ensuring dense prey concentrations. The aggregations are not necessarily for spawning or feeding; it is thought that the fish cycle through metabolic phases (active or feeding and inactive or resting) and seek areas with ideal hydrologic conditions to congregate during each phase. They lose almost all pigmentation while inactive, during which time they are very approachable. Predators include large deep-roving sharks, cutthroat eels, merluccid hakes, and snake mackerels.

When active, juveniles feed primarily on zooplankton such as mysid shrimp, euphausiids, mesopelagic and benthopelagic fish, amphipods, and other crustaceans; mature adults consume smaller fish, predominantly of the Chaetodontidae and Myctophidae families, and squid which makes up to 20% of their diet. The diet of the orange roughy is depth-related with adult diets inversely related to that of juveniles. For example, juvenile consumption of crustaceans is lowest at 900 m but increases with depth while crustaceans in the adult diet peaks at 800 – 1000 m and decreases with depth. The consumption of fish is the opposite, juvenile consumption decreases with depth while adult consumption increases. This inverse feeding pattern may be an example of resource-partitioning to avoid intraspecific competition for the available food at depths where prey is less abundant. The orange roughy's metabolic phases are thought to be related to seasonal variations in prey concentrations. The inactive phase conserves energy during lean periods. Orange roughy can live up to 149 years.[7]

Reproduction[edit]

Orange roughy are oceanodromous, pelagic spawners: that is, they migrate several hundred kilometers between localized spawning and feeding areas each year and form large spawning aggregations (possibly segregated according to sex) wherein the fish release large, spherical eggs 2.25 millimetres (0.089 in) in diameter, made buoyant by an orange-red oil globule) and sperm en masse directly into the water. The fertilized eggs, which are said to be 2.0 to 2.5 mm, (and later larvae) are planktonic, rising to around 200 m (660 ft) to develop, with the young fish eventually descending to deeper waters as they mature. Orange Roughy are also synchronous, shedding sperm and eggs at the same time. The time between fertilization and hatching is thought to be 10 to 20 days; fecundity is low, with each female producing only 22,000 eggs per kilogram of body weight which is less than 10 per cent of the average for other species of fish. Also, spawning can last up to three weeks and starts around June or July. Orange roughy are very slow-growing and do not begin to breed until they are at least 20 years old when they are around 30 cm (12 in) in length.[7]

The maturation age used in stock assessments ranges from 23–40 years,[8] which limits population growth/recovery, because each new generation takes so long to start spawning.

Lifespan[edit]

The maximum published age of 149 years was determined via radiometric dating of trace isotopes found in an orange roughy's otolith ("ear bone").[9] Similarly, counting by the growth rings of orange roughy otoliths has given a maximum age of 125 to 156 years.[10] The validity of these results is questioned by commercial fishers as some state the former method is controversial and the latter method is known to underestimate age in older specimens.[citation needed] The issue has yet to be resolved definitively, but carries important implications relating to the orange roughy's conservation status.

Threats[edit]

Capture rate of orange roughy worldwide

In recent years, human consumption of orange roughy has risen drastically due to increased supply through new deep-sea trawling techniques. Its recovery rate from fishing is slow because its long life cycle and sporadic reproduction make the fish prone to overfishing. Due to habitat damage of commercial trawling, some may not venture out during mating season. Studies have shown a decline in species associated with orange roughy, either indirectly through trophic interactions or directly through catching them, such as sea coral.

The United States continues to import up to 8,620 tonnes (19 million lb) per year. Several major food retailers have established seafood sustainability policies dealing with orange roughy. Some, such as Giant Eagle, Kroger, and BI-LO/Winn-Dixie allow the sale of the fish, while others, including Whole Foods, Safeway, and Trader Joe's, explicitly prohibit its sale.[11] A 2003 joint report by the TRAFFIC Oceania and World Wildlife Foundation Endangered Seas Program argues there is "probably no such thing as an economically viable deep-water fishery that is also sustainable. Similarly, international agreements to reduce fishing capacity, to remove subsidies which encourage overfishing, to encourage co-operation in management of fish stocks and flag States to take responsibility for their vessels fishing on the high seas, appear to have gone largely unheeded, to the detriment of deep-sea species and their associated ecosystems."[8]

In addition to the dangers for the species, bottom trawling has been heavily criticized by environmentalists for its destructive nature. This destructive nature combined with heavy commercial demand has focused criticism from both environmentalists and media.[12]

The Australian orange roughy fishery was not discovered until the 1970s, but by 2008, the biomass was down to 10% of the unfished level.[13] It was the first commercially sought fish to appear on Australia's endangered species list because of overfishing.[14]

Conservation[edit]

Conservation measures consist of imperfectly enforced catch limits, and listings on various endangered species and do-not-eat lists maintained by governments and environmental activist organizations.

According to sustainable seafood guides, such as Seafood Watch (USA), the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society of New Zealand,[15] the Marine Conservation Society (UK),[16] consumers should strongly avoid the species.

Orange roughy is New Zealand's highest value fishery, accounting for 17.2% of total finfish export earnings. The generally accepted fishery management practice is to quickly reduce the original biomass (fish down stage) to a target of 30%. Once this target is achieved, quotas are set. For example, assuming a hypothetical unfished biomass of 100,000 tons, 70,000 tons are considered "surplus" and unrestrained fishing is allowed to remove it. Quotas are set to maintain the 30,000-ton target biomass. The catch size that allows this is the maximum sustainable yield and was originally believed to be 1,200 tons per year. By 2005, it became obvious this quota was too high.[17]

The New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries has reduced catch quotas each year because the species' maturation and reproduction rates have been repeatedly overestimated. Antons Trawling, Ltd. represents 66% of the orange roughy quotas, and appealed the northern fishery's (ORH1) 2008 quota, which reduced the total allowable catch (TAC) from 1,470 to 914 tons. In February 2008, the High Court overturned the new quota, ruling the Minister did not have the legal power to set quotas for ORH1 because the strict interpretation of the Fisheries Act required an accurate population assessment and comparison to how many there should be. Due to the expense and difficulty of conducting assessments, only 20% of the areas had assessments. The majority of the unassessed areas had TACs of 10 tons or less, with a few notable exceptions, such as ORH1. As assessments in these areas to replace existing monitoring systems were neither cost effective nor technically feasible, the court recommended amendments to the Act.[18][19] However, the new quotas are estimated to sustainably support only 11% of the unfished population size. Also, catch misreporting is a serious and common problem, with one ORH1 permit holder pleading guilty in 2008 to exceeding his quota by 180 tons, which by itself represents 12% of the quota. Area limits and feature limits are also routinely exceeded. The Area A catch limit of 200 tons has been exceeded every year, while the 30-ton limit for the Mercury-Colville features had been exceeded in three of the four years preceding the study, including a catch of 64 tons in 2004-05. Since orange roughy is a valuable export, the Ministry of Fisheries has launched projects to study the fish.[20]

In 2010, Greenpeace International added orange roughy (deep sea perch) to its seafood red list, which contains fish generally sourced from unsustainable fisheries.[21]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Science Fact Sheet: Orange Roughy, Delicacy from the deep" (– Scholar search). Archived from the original on July 9, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  2. ^ "Trade secrets: Renaming and mislabeling of seafood". Retrieved 2011-03-17. 
  3. ^ Updating the Existing Risk Management Strategy for Mercury in Retail Fish Health Canada
  4. ^ a b Mercury in Seafood Seafood Network Information Centre
  5. ^ Techno-economic data on Mercury and major compounds INERIS June 13, 2006
  6. ^ "Mercury: how much is safe?". Green Left. June 24, 1998. "An average woman weighing 60 kilograms can ingest 60 x 0.1 = 6 micrograms of mercury per day without exceeding the EPA reference dose. If each gram of fish contains 0.2 micrograms of mercury, our average woman could only eat 6/0.2 = 30 grams of fish per day without exceeding the EPA reference dose." 
  7. ^ a b Bulman, C.M.; Koslow, J.A. (June 4). "Diet and food consumption of a deep-sea fish, orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus (Pisces: Trachichthyidae), off southeastern Australia". Marine Ecology Progress series (CSIRO Division of Fisheries) 82: 115–129. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  8. ^ a b Managing risk and uncertainty in deep-sea fisheries: lessons from Orange Roughy
  9. ^ Fenton, G.E; Short, S.A.; Ritz, D.A. (June 1991). "Age determination of orange roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus (Pisces: Trachichthyidae) using 210 Pb: 226 Ra disequilibria". Marine Biology (Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer) 109 (2): 197–202. doi:10.1007/BF01319387. ISSN 0025-3162. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  10. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/15991999
  11. ^ "Carting Away the Oceans 7". Greenpeace. May 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-06. 
  12. ^ "Case for trawl ban 'overwhelming'". BBC New. 2007-05-05. Retrieved 2006-11-15. 
  13. ^ Orange roughy: Down and out Australian Marine Conservation Society
  14. ^ Darby, Andrew (2006-11-10). "Trawled fish on endangered list". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  15. ^ The Best Fish Guide 09-10
  16. ^ Fish Online
  17. ^ Industry Management Within the New Zealand Quota Management System: pdf.
  18. ^ Orange roughy decision shows changes are needed Scoop February 26, 2008
  19. ^ Proposed Amendment to the Fishery Act Office of the Minister of Fisheries
  20. ^ http://www.unep.org/bpsp/Fisheries/Fisheries%20Case%20Study%20Summaries/Smith(Summary).pdf
  21. ^ Greenpeace International Seafood Red list

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Clover, Charles. 2004. The End of the Line: How overfishing is changing the world and what we eat. Ebury Press, London. ISBN 0-09-189780-7
  • Earle, Sylvia. 2009. The World is Blue. National Geographic. ISBN 1-4262-0541-4
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