Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Non-schooling (Ref. 28073). Lives close to the coast and is rarely found offshore, in deeper water (Ref. 1371). Benthic, shallows and deepwater to 400 m (Ref. 58426). Feeds on fishes (capelin, polar cod, smaller Greenland cod and Greenland halibut (Ref. 5951)), shrimps, crabs, euphausiids, squids, polychaetes, and echinoderms. There is probably competition between this species and Gadus morhua (Ref. 1371). Over 12 nucleotide substitutions in the 307 base pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene differentiate this species from Gadus morhua (Ref. 40214).
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Arctic and Northwest Atlantic: Port Barrow, Alaska to West Greenland, then south along Canadian coast to the Miramichi, Gulf of St. Lawrence and Cape Breton Island.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Arctic to Northwest Atlantic, and Northeast Atlantic: Port Barrow, Alaska to West Greenland, then south along Canadian coast to the Miramichi, Gulf of St. Lawrence and Cape Breton Island. Northeast Atlantic: a disjunct population in the White Sea exists. The stock has been strongly reduced in recent years.
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Arctic and western North Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Analspines: 0
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Size

Maximum size: 700 mm TL
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Max. size

77.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7275)); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 28073)
  • Mikhail, M.Y. and H.E. Welch 1989 Biology of Greenland cod, Gadus ogac, at Saqvaqjuac, northwest coast of Hudson Bay. Environ. Biol. Fish. 26:49--62. (Ref. 28073)
  • Nielsen, J.R. 1992 Growth of Greenland cod, Gadus ogac, in the Nunk area of West Greenland. ICES CM/1992/G:32. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen. (Ref. 7275)
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Diagnostic Description

Head relatively broad, interorbital space 18-25% of head length. Generally dark shading to paler ventrally. Peritoneum dark.
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Lives close to the coast and is rarely found offshore, in deeper water.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 1371)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Depth range based on 470 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 298 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 10 - 384
  Temperature range (°C): -1.120 - 5.152
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.417 - 19.580
  Salinity (PPS): 30.218 - 34.679
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.306 - 7.862
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.588 - 1.398
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.664 - 13.795

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 10 - 384

Temperature range (°C): -1.120 - 5.152

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.417 - 19.580

Salinity (PPS): 30.218 - 34.679

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.306 - 7.862

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.588 - 1.398

Silicate (umol/l): 2.664 - 13.795
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 200m.
Recorded at 200 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Lives close to the coast and is rarely found offshore, in deeper water. Feeds on capelin, small flounders, polar cod, shrimps, crabs, euphausiids, squids, polychaetes, and echinoderms. Often found with @Gadus morhua@ which it might compete with. Matures at 3 to 4 years of age and spawns in shallow waters from Feb. to May.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Trophic Strategy

Non-schooling (Ref. 28073). Lives close to the coast and is rarely found offshore, in deeper water (Ref. 1371). Benthic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on fishes, shrimps, crabs, euphausiids, squids, polychaetes, and echinoderms. There is probably competition between this species and Gadus morhua (Ref. 1371). Parasites of the species include sealworm (Phocanema decipiens) in flesh, copepod (Lernaeocera branchialis) on gills and cestode (Pyramicocephalus phocarum) in the intestine (Ref. 5951).
  • Mikhail, M.Y. and H.E. Welch 1989 Biology of Greenland cod, Gadus ogac, at Saqvaqjuac, northwest coast of Hudson Bay. Environ. Biol. Fish. 26:49--62. (Ref. 28073)
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on fishes, shrimps, crabs, euphausiids, squids, polychaetes, and echinoderms
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
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Wikipedia

Greenland cod

The Greenland cod, Gadus ogac, known also as ogac, is a commercially harvested food fish.[1][2] However, molecular genetic analyses strongly suggest that Greenland cod is not different from Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus; Gadus ogac is then a junior synonym of G. macrocephalus.[3] Nevertheless, ITIS still lists Gadus ogac as a valid name.[4]

In colour the Greenland cod is generally sombre, ranging from tan to brown to silvery. Its appearance is similar to that of other cod species; generally heavy-bodied, elongate, usually with a stout caudal peduncle.[2] They can grow to a length of 77 cm.[1]

They are bottom fishes inhabiting inshore waters and continental shelves, up to depths of 200 m. Their range covers the Arctic Ocean and Northwest Atlantic Ocean from Alaska to West Greenland, then south along the Canadian coast to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Cape Breton Island generally from 45 to 75 degrees north.[2]

Their wholesome flesh is whitish and flaky but firmer and tougher and less desirable than that of the Atlantic cod.[citation needed] The stock of Greenland cod has been strongly reduced in recent years.[2]

Contents

Fisheries[edit]

Global capture of Greenland cod in tonnes reported by the FAO, 1950–2010[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2005). "Gadus ogac" in FishBase. October 2005 version.
  2. ^ a b c d e Gadus ogac (Richardson, 1836) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  3. ^ Carr, S. M.; Kivlichan, D. S.; Pepin, P.; Crutcher, D. C. (1999). "Molecular systematics of gadid fishes: Implications for the biogeographic origins of Pacific species". Canadian Journal of Zoology 77: 19–26. doi:10.1139/z98-194.  edit
  4. ^ "Gadus ogac". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

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