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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: anchoveta (English), anchoveta (Espanol)
 
Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842

Peruvian anchoveta

Body elongated, rounded; snout long, sharply pointed, prominent; top jaw moderate, reaching only to front edge of preoperculum, with pointed tip; tip of bottom jaw reaching before nostril; fine teeth on lower jaw; gill filament on body under gill cover large, reaching onto inner surface of gill cover; membrane under throat between gill covers not expanded at rear, gill rakers fine and slender, 38-49 lower rakers, third gill arch with rakers on rear surface; gill branch under gill cover longer than eye; dorsal fin origin in mid-body; pectoral short, not reaching pelvics; anal fin short (iii, 18), origin well behind dorsal fin base .

Silver stripe along flank in young fish only.


Size: to 24 cm.

Habitat: marine, coastal pelagic, usually within 80 km of shore.

Depth: 0-50 m?

Ecuador to Chile, Galapagos as a vagrant.
   
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Biology

Adults occur mainly within 80 km of coast, forming huge schools, chiefly in surface waters. Are filter-feeders entirely dependent on the rich plankton of the Peruvian Current. In some studies, diatoms constituted as much as 98% of the diet. Large populations of guano birds and pelicans also depend on this fish (Ref. 9988). Utilized as fish meal and oil (Ref. 9988).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana 1988 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=189&speccode=4 External link.
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Distribution

Range Description

In the southeastern Pacific, this species is found from Ecuador to Chile, and can be found in the Galapagos islands as a vagrant.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, TEP non-endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily, Peruvian province, primarily, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Vagrant

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Southeast Pacific: Aguja Point, Peru to Chiloé, Chile (distribution dependent on the coastal extent of the Peru Current).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana 1988 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=189&speccode=4 External link.
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Southeastern Pacific: Ecuador to Chile, including the Galápagos Islands.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (G) - 50 (G)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Analspines: 0
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Size

Length max (cm): 24.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 200 mm SL
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Max. size

20.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 189)); max. reported age: 3 years (Ref. 189)
  • Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana 1988 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=189&speccode=4 External link.
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Diagnostic Description

Body elongate, slender, and rounded in cross section; snout long and prominent; lower branch of first gill arch with 34 to 49 gill rakers; anal fin with fewer than 22 rays, located behind dorsal fin base; body shiny blue or green (Ref. 55763). There is a silver stripe along flank in juveniles which disappears with age. The high number of gill rakers distinguishes it from all Pacific species of Anchoa.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is a pelagic, oceanodromous fish that occurs mainly within 80 km of the coast, forming huge schools, chiefly in surface waters. It is found todepths of 50 m. It is a filter-feeder that is entirely dependent on the rich plankton of the Peruvian Current and its northern distribution is limited in Peruvian waters in years when a tongue of warmer and less saline surface water extends southward over the northbound coastal Peruvian Current (the so-called El Niño phenomenon) (FAO-FIGIS 2001, Chen et al. 2004). In some studies, diatoms constituted as much as 98% of the diet of this species. The preferred climate of this species is subtropical (Castro and Hernandez 2000).

Eggs are ellipsoidal and this species breeds throughout the year along the entire coast of Peru. The major spawning is in the winter/spring (July to September) and a lesser one is in the summer (February and March). It also spawns throughout year off of Chile, with peaks in winter (May to July) and the end of spring (especially December). This species matures at about one year (about 10 cm standard length). It attains about eight cm as its standard length in six months, 10.5 cm in 12 months and 12 cm in 18 months, with a longevity of about three years (FAO-FIGIS 2001).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous; marine; depth range 3 - 80 m
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 27 - 27
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 3 - 80m.
From 3 to 80 meters.

Habitat: pelagic. Occurs mainly within 80 Km of coast, forming huge schools, chiefly in surface waters. A filter-feeder entirely dependent on the rich plankton of the Peruvian Current (where it occurs at temperatures ranging from 13-23 °C, Ref. 6). In some studies, diatoms constituted as much as 98% of the diet. Large populations of guano birds and pelicans also depends on this fish (Ref. 9988). Utilized as fish meal and oil (Ref. 9988).
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Surface, Near Surface, Water column only

Habitat: Water column

FishBase Habitat: Pelagic
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Planktivore

Diet: phytoplankton, zooplankton, pelagic fish eggs, pelagic fish larvae
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Eggs ellipsoidal.
  • Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana 1988 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=189&speccode=4 External link.
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Engraulis ringens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

GCAGGAATGGTAGGAACAGCACTT---AGCCTACTGATCCGAGCAGAATTAAGCCAACCGGGAGCACTTTTGGGAGAT---GATCAAATTTATAATGTGATCGTCACCGCTCACGCATTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTTATACCAATCCTAATCGGCGGATTCGGGAATTGACTAGTTCCTTTAATA---CTCGGGGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCCCGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTTTGACTTCTCCCCCCCTCATTTCTTCTTCTCCTTGCCTCATCTGGGGTTGAAGCAGGGGCCGGAACGGGCTGAACGGTCTACCCCCCTTTAGCAGGAAACCTGGCCCACGCGGGGGCATCCGTGGACCTT---ACAATTTTTTCCCTTCACTTGGCGGGCATTTCATCAATCTTGGGTGCCATTAACTTCATTACCACTATTATTAACATAAAACCTCCTGCCATCTCACAATATCAGACGCCTCTATTTGTCTGAGCTGTGCTAATTACAGCAGTACTTTTACTTCTTTCACTCCCTGTTCTAGCGGCT---GGGATCACTATGCTTCTTACAGATCGAAACCTAAACACCACCTTCTTTGACCCAGCA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Engraulis ringens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Iwamoto, T., Eschmeyer, W. & Alvarado, J.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
Although this species is under high pressure from fisheries and may be affected by El Niño, it has a wide distribution which includes Marine Protected Areas. Therefore, this species is listed as Least Concern. However, continued monitoring of harvest levels and population trends is recommended to ensure that these pressures do not threaten this species.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This is the most heavily exploited fish in world history, yielding 13,059,900 t in 1971, but with great fluctuations and a decline since that year. After the drastic reduction in the harvests of the 80s, influenced by the strongest El Niño of the century (1982-83), in the 90s the harvests began to recover and peaked in 1994 with 12,520,611 t. The fishes are recruited to the fishery at about eight cm standard length at the age of five or six months. They are caught by purse seine (vessels known as bolicheras in Peru). Common fishing techniques are midwater otter trawling and small pelagic midwater trawling. A good summary of the dynamics of this fishery is given by Schaeffer (1967) and the state of the fishery is monitored in publications by the Institute del Mar del Peru in cooperation with FAO (in Bulletins and Reports of the Institute). The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 8,723,265 t. The countries with the largest harvests were Peru (6,740,225 t) and Chile (1,983,040 t) (FAO-FIGI 2001).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This is the most heavily exploited fish in world history (FAO-FIGIS 2001). Among other threats, global warming is probably affecting the fisheries of this species (Soto 2002).
This is a highly commercial species, mainly utilized as fish meal. The harvest in 1990 in Peru was 4,017,106 t and in Chile was more than 500,000 t. Seines were used as the main method of harvesting (Watson and Sandknop 1996).
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas in the tropical eastern Pacific region.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; price category: low; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Wikipedia

Peruvian anchoveta

The Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) is a fish of the anchovy family, Engraulidae.

Anchoveta are pelagic fish in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, and are regularly caught on the coasts of Peru, and Chile. They live for up to 4 years, reaching 20 cm, with recruitment occurring after only about 6 months when they have already grown over 8 cm. It was previously thought that anchoveta ate mostly phytoplankton, small zooplankton, and larvae. However, recent work has shown that anchoveta get most of their energy from zooplankton and macrozooplankton (Espinoza & Bertrand 2008, Espinoza et al. 2009). Euphausiids and large copepods are the most important dietary components.

After a period of plenty in the late 1960s, the population was greatly reduced by overfishing[1] and the 1972 El Niño event, when warm water drifted over the cold Humboldt Current and lowered the depth of the thermocline. Nutrient rich waters were then no longer upwelled and phytoplankton production decreased, leaving the anchoveta with a depleted food source.

Since the mid-1980s, the Peruvian anchoveta has again become very abundant, with current catch levels being comparable to those of the 1960s.

Utilization[edit]

Until about 2005 the anchoveta was almost exclusively used for making fishmeal, and in fact Peru produces some of the highest quality fishmeal in the world. Since 2005 anchoveta is increasingly used for direct human consumption, as fresh fish, as canned fish or as salted-matured fillets packed in oil. Peruvian canned anchoveta is sold as Peruvian canned sardines.[2] The new use is sometimes called the second anchoveta boom, the first boom being the discovery and subsequent fishery and fishmeal production in the 1960s/70s. The second boom was kick-started by the Peruvian Fish Technology Institute CIP, assisted by FAO. A large scale promotion campaign including by the Peruvian President at the time, Alan Garcia, helped to make the anchoveta known by rich and poor alike. Previously it was not considered as food and hardly known among the population, now it is found in supermarkets and served in restaurants. Still, only 1 percent of anchovy catches are used for direct human consumption and 99 percent continue to be reduced to fishmeal and oil.[3]

Culinary Aspects: Anchovy vs Anchoveta[edit]

Canned anchovy fillets commonly sold in the US are intensely salty and exclude skin and bones. They're often marked "Product of Morocco". These are salted-matured anchovy fillets. Canned anchovetas sold in Peru and elsewhere are almost identical to the canned sardines widely available in the US, hence the name "Peruvian sardines". Recently new ways of preparation for the anchovetas have been developed in Peru, therefore new products are already in the international market like anchoveta chicharrones, anchoveta jerky meat, anchoveta paste and anchoveta steaks.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pauly, Daniel, et al. "Towards sustainability in world fisheries". Nature. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  2. ^ Canadian Food Inspection Agency. "Canned Sardine Standard". Retrieved 19 September 2012. 
  3. ^ Fréon, Pierre, et al. "Impacts of the Peruvian anchoveta supply chains: from wild fish in the water to protein on the plate". GLOBEC International Newsletter 16(1). Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics. Retrieved 19 September 2012. 


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