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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits intertidal reef flats. Also found in seagrass habitats to few meters depth (Ref. 48635). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Males may be brooding at 4.6 cm SL (Ref. 30874).
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Line, Society (Ref. 4281), and Gambier islands, north to southern Japan, south to Tonga.
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Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Line Islands, Society Islands and Gambier Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Tonga.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 27 - 34; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 4
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Size

Maximum size: 85 mm NG
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Max. size

8.5 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710))
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Diagnostic Description

Short-snouted; dark, blackish brown with small black spots and small white ocelli in parallel series along trunk, and some white speckles over the back (Ref. 48635). Males are characterized by vertical row of silver spots (Ref 1602).
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 2 - 3 m (Ref. 37816)
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Depth range based on 37 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 26 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 10
  Temperature range (°C): 25.198 - 29.336
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.054 - 0.402
  Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 35.381
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.427 - 4.757
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.083 - 0.339
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.974 - 4.752

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 10

Temperature range (°C): 25.198 - 29.336

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.054 - 0.402

Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 35.381

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.427 - 4.757

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.083 - 0.339

Silicate (umol/l): 0.974 - 4.752
 
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Depth: 0 - 3m.
Recorded at 3 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Found in inshore waters (Ref. 75154).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
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