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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits intertidal reef flats. Also found in seagrass habitats to few meters depth (Ref. 48635). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Males may be brooding at 4.6 cm SL (Ref. 30874). Seen in lagoons and seaward reefs in 0-6 m (Ref 90102).
  • Dawson, C.E. 1985 Indo-Pacific pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA. (Ref. 5316)
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Line, Society (Ref. 4281), and Gambier islands, north to southern Japan, south to Tonga.
  • Myers, R.F. 1991 Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
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Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Line Islands, Society Islands and Gambier Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Tonga.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 27 - 34; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 4
  • Dawson, C.E. 1986 Syngnathidae. p. 445-458. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4281)
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Size

Maximum size: 85 mm NG
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Max. size

8.5 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710))
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Diagnostic Description

Short-snouted; dark, blackish brown with small black spots and small white ocelli in parallel series along trunk, and some white speckles over the back (Ref. 48635). Males are characterized by vertical row of silver spots (Ref 1602).Description: Characterized by having 10 caudal rays; rings 18 - 21 + 27 - 34; continuous superior trunk and tail ridges; inferior trunk ridge ends on anal ring; confluent lateral trunk and inferior tail ridge; prominent longitudinal keels on scutella; length of snout 2.0-2.5 in head length; depth of snout 2.2-3.5 in snout length; head length 4.9-7.1 in SL (Ref. 90102).
  • Dawson, C.E. 1986 Syngnathidae. p. 445-458. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4281)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 0 - 6 m (Ref. 90102)
  • Allen, G.R. and M.V. Erdmann 2012 Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth, Australia: Universitiy of Hawai'i Press, Volumes I-III. Tropical Reef Research. (Ref. 90102)
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Depth range based on 37 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 26 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 10
  Temperature range (°C): 25.198 - 29.336
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.054 - 0.402
  Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 35.381
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.427 - 4.757
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.083 - 0.339
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.974 - 4.752

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 10

Temperature range (°C): 25.198 - 29.336

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.054 - 0.402

Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 35.381

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.427 - 4.757

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.083 - 0.339

Silicate (umol/l): 0.974 - 4.752
 
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Depth: 0 - 3m.
Recorded at 3 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Found in inshore waters (Ref. 75154).
  • Hoese, D.F., D.J. Bray, J.R. Paxton and G.R. Allen 2006 Fishes. In Beasley, O.L. and A. Wells (eds.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 35.2 Australia: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing, 1472 p. (Ref. 75154)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
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