Overview

Brief Summary

Dragonets grow to a maximum of 34 centimeters. They are benthic fish with a characteristically long front dorsal fin. They often burrow into sandy sea bottoms and eat mainly worms. The spawning season is in the spring and summer, at which time the animals will defend their own territories. Dragonets are known for their exuberant courtship and bright colors during the spawning season. This species is commonly found along the Dutch coast. Dragonets are not commercially-interesting for the fisheries.
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Comprehensive Description

Callionymus lyra ZBK Linnaeus, 1758

Black Sea : 21500-540 (1 spc.), 20.11.1963 , Offshore of Bafa . Sea of Marmara : 21500-432 (2 spc.), 03.02.1995 , Front of Kumburgaz , trawl , L. Eryilmaz ; 21500-431 (3 spc.), 06.09.1963 , Offshore of Hora lighthouse, 33 m ; 21500-420 (2 spc.), 03.02.1995 , Front of Kumburgaz , trawl , L. Eryilmaz ; 21500-430 (4 spc.), 30.09.1967 ; 21500-547 (2 spc.), 12.05.1989 , Yesilkoey, 20 m , N. Meriç ; 21500-429 (2 spc.), 16.05.1964 , Sarkôy , beam trawl , 40 m .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 50-50, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Biology

Occurs on sand and muddy bottoms from sublittoral to 200 m (Ref. 6444) and to 400 m or more (Ref. 9900). Feeds on small invertebrates, mainly worms and crustaceans. Territorial, males aggressive with each other. Complex courtship behavior consists of 4 phases: courtship, pairing, ascending, releasing eggs and milt. Pelagic eggs and larvae (Ref. 5968). Minimum depth reported from Ref. 27115. Neither opercular spine gland nor anterolateral glandular groove with venom gland is present (Ref. 57406).
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Description

 Callionymus lyra is the largest (up to 30 cm) and most common dragonet in UK waters. Small specimens could be confused with gobies. However, the broader and triangular head distinguishes it, together with a longer snout and jutting lower jaw. Mature males have elongate dorsal and caudal fin rays, the second dorsal being yellowish with bright blue longitudinal stripes and bright blue marks on the head and body. Females and immature males are brown and lighter ventrally with a series of 6 brown blotches along the sides. Three symmetrical brown saddles are present along the back with indistinct darker stripes lengthwise on the second dorsal fin. Females are usually up to 20 cm long and males up to 30 cm. This species can blend perfectly with coarse sand or gravel substrata. The fins are often folded down when the fish is on the sea bed.Dragonets are small fish of shallow inshore waters. They are demersal and often found partially buried in sand or shell gravel. Adaptations to this mode of life include the dorsally situated gill opening and the flattened body shape. The diet of Callionymus lyra consists mainly of polychaete worms, amphipod crustaceans and molluscs, especially cockles.
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Description

The common dragonet has a rather flattened head and body and when viewed from above the head is almost triangular in shape. The pelvic fins are large and are held expanded. The eyes are close together and on top of the head. There are two dorsal fins, the first is triangular shaped and in males the first fin ray is very long. Females and immature males are usually pale brown with a series of six darker blotches along the sides and three conspicuous saddle-like markings across the back. Males have numerous blue spots and stripes on their bodies and fins. This is the largest of the dragonet species with females growing to 20cm in length and males growing to 30cm. The reticulated dragonet (Callionymus reticulatus) is similar but has a much darker outline bordering the saddle-markings and is usually found on coarse sand or gravel.
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Distribution

Eastern Atlantic: southern Iceland and Norway south to Mauritania, including the northern Mediterranean, Gibraltar, and Algeria, western Black Sea, Aegean and Adriatic Sea, Azores and the Canary Islands.
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Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Eastern North Atlantic: Iceland and Norway to Mauritania and Azores.
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This species is widespread all around the coasts of Britain and Ireland.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 4; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8 - 10; Analsoft rays: 9
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm TL
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Max. size

30.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4645)); 25 cm TL (female); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 72462)
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Diagnostic Description

Gill opening dorsal. Usually antrorse (forward-pointing) tip at base of preopercular spine. Rays of second dorsal unbranched except for the last, which is divided at base (Ref. 232). Snout length 2-3 times the diameter of the eye (Ref. 35388).
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 5 - 430 m (Ref. 5968), usually 5 - 30 m (Ref. 27115)
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Depth range based on 71033 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 34070 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -9 - 860
  Temperature range (°C): 6.433 - 16.771
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.402 - 17.472
  Salinity (PPS): 22.343 - 36.445
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.425 - 7.118
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.204 - 1.053
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 10.823

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -9 - 860

Temperature range (°C): 6.433 - 16.771

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.402 - 17.472

Salinity (PPS): 22.343 - 36.445

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.425 - 7.118

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.204 - 1.053

Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 10.823
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 Demersal, found in the sublittoral to depths of 430 m. More usually at depths of 5 to 50 m. Mainly a temperate species in waters 16-20 °Callionymus lyra lives on the sea bed, often partially buried in sand or shell gravel.
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Depth: 5 - 430m.
From 5 to 430 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Occurs on sand and muddy bottoms from sublittoral to 200 m (Ref.6444) and to 400 m or greater depths (Ref. 9900). Feeds on small invertebrates, mainly worms and crustaceans. Territorial, males aggressive with each other. Complex courtship behaviour consists of 4 phases: courtship, pairing, ascending, releasing eggs and milt. Pelagic eggs and larvae (Ref. 5968).
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The common dragonet is usually found on sandy or muddy sebeds from a few metres depth down to 200m. It feeds on bottom-living crustaceans, worms and molluscs.
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Trophic Strategy

Territorial. Males are aggressive to each other (Ref. 5968).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Complex courtship behavior with 4 phases: courtship, pairing, ascending, releasing eggs and milt (Ref. 5968).
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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 7 years (wild)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Callionymus lyra

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Callionymus lyra

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 25
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums; price category: unknown; price reliability:
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Wikipedia

Common dragonet

The Common dragonet (Callionymus lyra), is a species of dragonet widespread in the Eastern Atlantic from southern Iceland and Norway south to Mauritania, including the northern Mediterranean Sea, Gibraltar, and Algeria, western Black Sea, Aegean and Adriatic Sea, Azores and the Canary Islands. It can be found at depths of from 5 to 430 metres (16 to 1,411 ft) though mostly found no deeper than 30 metres (98 ft). This species is of minor importance to local commercial fisheries and can be found displayed in public aquariums. Males of this species grows to a length of 30 centimetres (12 in) TL while the females can reach a length of 25 centimetres (9.8 in) TL.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Callionymus lyra" in FishBase. February 2013 version.


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