Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Dutch (1) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Description

A highly sought after food fish, the Atlantic halibut is the largest flatfish in the world (2) (3). Flatfish exhibit a unique and distinctive anatomy that is adapted to their life on the sea bed; namely, they are flattened sideways and habitually lie on one side of their body, instead of being flattened from top to bottom like many others of the sea bed. As a result, both eyes tend to migrate to one side of the head during development. The Atlantic halibut lies on its left side and has both eyes positioned on its right, facing upwards (2). The fish is greenish-brown to dark brown or black on its upper surface and a dirty white on its lower surface (4) (5). Young fish are paler with more mottled colouration (3) (5).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 4.0 of 5

Halibut is the largest species of flatfish. It can reach lengths up to 4 meters. Both eyes are situated on the right side of the body. Compared to other flatfish, this species sometimes dares to leave the sea floor to search for food in the water column. It used to be caught a lot in the northern North Sea; however the species has practically disappeared there due to overfishing. Cod-liver oil, the famous liquid that children used to be given daily because it contains vitamin D, comes from the liver of the halibut or cod.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Copyright Ecomare

Source: Ecomare

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Biology

The Atlantic halibut has a relatively slow growth rate and late onset of sexual maturity (5), with males attaining maturity at seven to eight years old, females at ten to eleven years (4), and individuals are thought to live up to a 50 years (3). Little is known about their breeding except that spawning is seasonal, although its timing varies somewhat with location. In the Eastern Atlantic spawning occurs chiefly in March, April and May, although may span from January to June. Off the American coast, however, the spawning season appears to continue through the summer as late as September (3). After spawning both sexes migrate northwards in search of food (4). Young individuals feed on crustaceans like crabs and prawns, but older fish feed more on other fish, such as cod, haddock, herring and skate (4) (5). These halibut lie motionless and invisible on the sea bed, capturing any fish that pass within reach (3), although they may also hunt for fish in open water (4).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults are benthic but occasionally pelagic (Ref. 4705). Feed mainly on other fishes (cod, haddock, pogge, sand-eels, herring, capelin), but also takes cephalopods, large crustaceans and other bottom-living animals. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Growth rate varies according to density, competition and availability of food. Slow growth rate and late onset of sexual maturity, halibut populations can be seriously affected by overfishing (Ref. 35388). Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; can be steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Also Ref. 58426.
  • Nielsen, J.G. 1986 Pleuronectidae. p. 1299-1307. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4705)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

 Highly sought after commercially, the Atlantic halibut is the largest flatfish in the world reaching up to 2.5 m in length. It is a right-handed flatfish. The visible upper side of its laterally compressed body is usually dark brown to dark olive green in colour. The underside is a dirty white. Younger specimens may appear paler in colour and show a mottled pattern. Both eyes are positioned close together on its right side. It has a gaping mouth which extends back as far as the eyes.Atlantic halibut feed mainly on other fish (cod, haddock, pogge, sand-eels, herring, capelin) but also targets cephalopods, large crustaceans and other bottom-living animals. Due to slow growth rates and late onset of sexual maturity, Hippoglossus hippoglossus populations can be seriously affected by overfishing (Muus & Nielsen, 1999).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range

Found in the cold waters of North Atlantic coasts (6), ranging in the Eastern Atlantic from the Bay of Biscay to Spitsbergen, Barents Sea, Iceland and eastern Greenland, and in the Western Atlantic from south-western Greenland and Labrador in Canada to Virginia in the USA (5).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 4.0 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Southwest Labrador and Greenland to Virginia
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Spitsbergen, Barents Sea, Iceland and eastern Greenland. Western Atlantic: southwestern Greenland and Labrador in Canada to Virginia in USA (Ref. 7251).
  • Nielsen, J.G. 1986 Pleuronectidae. p. 1299-1307. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4705)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

North Atlantic (including western Baltic Sea, northern North Sea).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Western Atlantic: southwestern Greenland and Labrador, Canada to Virginia, USA. Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Spitzbergen, Norway, Barents Sea, Iceland and eastern Greenland.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and Schroeder, W.C., 1953; Nielsen, J.G., 1986; C.R. Robins and G.C. Ray, 1986; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L Bauchot, J.-C Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 98 - 110; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 73 - 85
  • Nielsen, J.G. 1986 Pleuronectidae. p. 1299-1307. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4705)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Max. size

470 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)); 300 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 320.0 kg (Ref. 7251); max. reported age: 50 years (Ref. 173)
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Maximum size: 2400 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

to 240.0 cm TL (male/unsexed); 300.0 cm TL (female); max. weight: 320 kg.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and Schroeder, W.C., 1953; Nielsen, J.G., 1986; C.R. Robins and G.C. Ray, 1986; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L Bauchot, J.-C Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Uniformly dark brown or black; young marbled or spotted with paler marks (Ref. 4705).
  • Nielsen, J.G. 1986 Pleuronectidae. p. 1299-1307. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4705)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat Type: Marine

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Found at depths of 50- 2000 m.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 50 - 2000 m (Ref. 4705)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
  • Nielsen, J.G. 1986 Pleuronectidae. p. 1299-1307. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4705)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 6795 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 5558 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -9 - 960
  Temperature range (°C): -0.874 - 11.782
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.186 - 26.159
  Salinity (PPS): 30.218 - 35.390
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.207 - 7.766
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.353 - 1.806
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.599 - 25.595

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -9 - 960

Temperature range (°C): -0.874 - 11.782

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.186 - 26.159

Salinity (PPS): 30.218 - 35.390

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.207 - 7.766

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.353 - 1.806

Silicate (umol/l): 1.599 - 25.595
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

 Hippoglossus hippoglossus is a predominantly benthic and demersal species or more infrequently pelagic. They are usually found on sand, gravel, or clay substrates and not on soft mud or on a rocky seabed.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 50 - 2000m.
From 50 to 2000 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Demersal; marine; depth range 50 - 2000 m. Benthic, but occasionally pelagic.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and Schroeder, W.C., 1953; Nielsen, J.G., 1986; C.R. Robins and G.C. Ray, 1986; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L Bauchot, J.-C Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

This marine fish usually lives on the ocean floor at depths of around 50 to 2000 m, but occasionally comes closer to the surface (5). Larvae are pelagic, drifting relatively helplessly, but at around 4 cm they migrate to the bottom (3) (4). Young between two and four years live close to the shore, moving into deeper waters as they grow (4).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Benthic but occasionally pelagic (Ref. 4705). Feeds mainly on other fishes (cod, haddock, pogge, sand-eels, herring, capelin), but also takes cephalopods, large crustaceans and other bottom-living animals (Ref. 9988). Parasites of the species include monogeneans, trematodes, cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans and copepods (Ref. 5951).
  • Sparholt, H. 1990 An estimate of the total biomass of fish in the North Sea. J. Cons. 46:200-210. (Ref. 12224)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Partner Web Site: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Feeds mainly on other fishes (cod, haddock, sand-eels, herring, capelin), but also cephalopods, large crustaceans and other bottom invertebrates.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and Schroeder, W.C., 1953; Nielsen, J.G., 1986; C.R. Robins and G.C. Ray, 1986; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L Bauchot, J.-C Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Known predators

Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Halibut) is prey of:
Gadidae
Hemitripterus americanus
Leucoraja erinacea
Leucoraja ocellata
Amblyraja radiata
Squalus acanthias
Lophius americanus
Chondrichthyes
Homo sapiens

Based on studies in:
USA, Northeastern US contintental shelf (Coastal)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Known prey organisms

  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on cephalopods, crustaceans, and fishes including cod, haddock, pogge, land eels, herring and capelin
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Cycle

Males reach sexual maturity at 7-8 years and females at 10-11 years. Spawning happens from December to April, near the bottom (300 to 700 m), at temperatures between 5 and 7°. Egg size 3.0-3.8, larval size at hatching 6.5 mm (Ref. 4705).
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 90 years (wild) Observations: In Scotland, these animals mature at about 3 years of age and live about 6 years while in Newfoundland they mature at about age 15 and live around 20 years (Roff 2007). Old animals appear to remain fertile (Patnaik et al. 1994). They have been estimated to live up to 90 years in the wild (http://www.demogr.mpg.de/longevityrecords), which is not impossible though unverified. Other estimates suggest these animals may live up to 50 years (http://www.fishbase.org/).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Spawns December-April at depths 300-1000 m and at water temperatures 5-7°C.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and Schroeder, W.C., 1953; Nielsen, J.G., 1986; C.R. Robins and G.C. Ray, 1986; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L Bauchot, J.-C Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Hippoglossus hippoglossus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 8 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGTTGATTTTTCTCGACCAATCACAAAGACATCGGCACCCTCTATCTCGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTGGGGACAGGCCTA---AGTCTGCTTATTCGGGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCCGGGGCTCTCCTGGGAGAC---GACCAAATTTATAATGTGATCGTCACCGCACACGCCTTTGTAATAATCTTTTTTATAGTAATACCCATTATGATTGGGGGGTTCGGAAACTGGCTTATTCCACTAATA---ATTGGGGCCCCAGACATGGCGTTCCCTCGAATGAATAATATGAGTTTCTGACTTCTTCCCCCCTCCTTTCTCCTCCTCTTAGCCTCTTCAGGTGTTGAAGCCGGAGCAGGTACCGGATGAACCGTGTACCCCCCACTAGCTGGCAATTTAGCCCACGCCGGGGCATCCGTAGACCTG---ACAATCTTCTCACTTCACCTTGCAGGAATTTCATCAATTCTGGGGGCAATTAACTTTATTACTACCATCATTAACATGAAACCCACAACAGTCACTATGTACCAAATCCCGTTATTTGTTTGAGCCGTTCTTATTACAGCCGTACTTCTTCTTCTGTCCCTGCCCGTTTTAGCCGCA---GGGATTACAATGCTACTAACAGACCGCAACCTTAACACGACCTTCTTTGACCCTGCCGGAGGAGGTGACCCCATTCTCTACCAACACCTATTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAGGTATACATTCTTATCCTCCCAGGCTTCGGAATAATTTCTCACATTGTTGCATACTATGCAGGTAAGAAA---GAACCTTTTGGCTACATGGGGATAGTCTGAGCTATAATGGCCATTGGACTCCTGGGCTTCATTGTCTGGGCCCATCACATATTTACAGTCGGAATAGACGTAGATACACGAGCCTACTTTACCTCTGCCACAATAATCATTGCGATTCCAACTGGCGTAAAAGTCTTTAGCTGACTC---GCAACCCTCCATGGGGGA---AGCATTAAATGAGAAACGCCCCTTCTATGAGCCCTCGGCTTTATTTTCCTCTTTACAGTAGGCGGTCTCACTGGCATTGTCTTAGCTAACTCCTCTCTCGATATTGTTCTGCATGACACATACTATGTAGTCGCCCACTTCCACTATGTA---CTATCTATGGGTGCTGTATTTGCAATCGTTGCCGCCTTCGTCCATTGATTTCCGTTATTTACAGGCTATACCCTTCACTCCACATGAACAAAAATCCACTTCGGCCTGATGTTTATTGGGGTCAATCTAACATTCTTCCCTCAACATTTTCTGGGCCTGGCTGGGATACCCCGA---CGGTACTCAGACTACCCAGACGCATACACC---CTTTGAAACACTGTTTCATCAATTGGGTCCCTAATGTCCCTCGTTGCTGTAATTTTATTCTTATTCATTATTTGAGAAGCATTTACAGCCAAACGAGAAGTC---GGAGCAGTAGAACTAACTGCAACTAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hippoglossus hippoglossus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 16
Specimens with Barcodes: 30
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
A1d

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1996
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
Sobel, J.

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Classified as Endangered (EN A1d) on the IUCN Red List 2004 (1).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Endangered (EN) (A1d)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The Atlantic halibut has suffered massive declines throughout its range over the last two centuries, including virtual elimination in many areas as a result of over-fishing (7). Their slow growth rate and late onset of sexual maturity make these fish extremely vulnerable to the effects of over-fishing (5). Not only does this mean that individuals are often harvested many years before reaching maturity, and therefore unable to increase abundance through reproduction, but also that populations will be slow to recover from collapses in numbers (7). Since population numbers are now too low to sustain target fisheries, Atlantic halibut are predominantly taken as bycatch by bottom trawlers and longliners (8). Surveys indicate that these fish have continued to decline in the North Atlantic over the past two decades, despite being taken only incidentally as bycatch, with little targeted halibut fishing (7).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation

There is currently no management plan in place for this fish and it is therefore thought probable that numbers of Atlantic halibut will continue to decline. It has been argued that Atlantic halibut are unlikely to recover simply by banning halibut landings or designating protected areas. Rather, the recovery and survival of this Endangered flatfish species will depend on reducing its bycatch in other highly exploited fisheries (7).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
  • International Game Fish Association 1991 World record game fishes. International Game Fish Association, Florida, USA. (Ref. 4699)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Atlantic halibut

The Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus, is a flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae. They are demersal fish living on or near sand, gravel or clay bottoms at depths of between 50 and 2,000 m (160 and 6,560 ft). The halibut is among the largest teleost (bony) fish in the world. Halibut are strong swimmers and are able to migrate long distances. Halibut size is not age-specific, but rather tends to follow a cycle related to halibut (and therefore food) abundance.

The native habitat of the Atlantic halibut is the temperate and arctic waters of the northern Atlantic, from Labrador and Greenland to Iceland, the Barents Sea and as far south as the Bay of Biscay and Virginia.[2] It is the largest flatfish in the world,[3] reaching lengths of up to 4.7 m (15 ft) and weights of 320 kg (710 lb). Its lifespan can reach 50 years.[2][4]

Description[edit]

The Atlantic halibut is a right-eyed flounder. It is flattened sideways and habitually lies on the left side of its body with both eyes migrating to the right side of its head during development. Its upper surface is a uniformly dark chocolate, olive or slate colour, and can be almost black; the underside is pale. The end of the caudal fin is concave.[4] Young fish are paler with more mottled colouration.[5]

Biology[edit]

The Atlantic halibut has a relatively slow growth rate and late onset of sexual maturity, with males attaining maturity at seven to eight years old, females at 10 to 11 years, and individuals are thought to live up to 50 years. Little is known about their breeding except their spawning is seasonal, although its timing varies somewhat with location. In the eastern Atlantic, spawning occurs chiefly in March, April and May, although may span from January to June. Off the American coast, however, the spawning season appears to continue through the summer as late as September. After spawning, both sexes migrate northwards in search of food. Young Atlantic halibut individuals feed on crustaceans such as crabs and prawns. These halibut lie motionless and invisible on the sea bed, capturing any fish that pass within reach, although they may also hunt for fish in open water.[2][5]

Habitat[edit]

This marine fish usually lives on the ocean floor at depths between 50 and 2,000 m (160 and 6,560 ft), but it occasionally comes closer to the surface. The larvae are pelagic, drifting relatively helplessly, but at around 4 cm, they migrate to the bottom. Young between the ages of two and four years live close to the shore, moving into deeper waters as they grow older.[2][5]

Role in ecosystem[edit]

The Atlantic halibut occupies a relatively high trophic level in the food chain.

Diet[edit]

The diet of the Atlantic halibut consists mainly of other fish, e.g. cod, haddock, herring, pogge, sand eels and capelin, but it will also eat cephalopods, large crustaceans and other benthos organisms.[2][4]

Predators[edit]

Atlantic halibut are eaten by seals, and are a staple food of the Greenland shark.[4]

Commercial fishing[edit]

The Atlantic halibut was formerly a very important food fish, but due to its slow rate of population growth, it is unable to recover quickly from overfishing, and the fishery has largely collapsed. Consequently, fish labelled as "halibut" is usually one of the other large flatfishes, often Pacific halibut, Hippoglossus stenolepis.

Farming[edit]

Due to its popularity as a food fish, Atlantic halibut has attracted investment in fish farming. As of 2006, five countries - Canada, Norway, the UK, Iceland and Chile - were engaged in some form of Atlantic halibut aquaculture production.[6]

Conservation status[edit]

Following overfishing, the Atlantic halibut now faces a high risk of extinction in the wild, and in 1996 the IUCN rated it as Endangered and placed it on its Red List.[7]

The Atlantic halibut is a US National Marine Fisheries Service Species of Concern. The American Fisheries Society has classified the species as "Vulnerable". In 2010, Greenpeace International added the Atlantic halibut to its seafood red list of "fish that are commonly sold in supermarkets around the world, and which have a very high risk of being sourced from unsustainable fisheries."[8]

References[edit]

This article incorporates text from the ARKive fact-file "Atlantic halibut" under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License and the GFDL.

  1. ^ Nicolas Bailly (2013). "Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus, 1758)". In Nicolas Bailly. FishBase. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved July 8, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Ranier Froese; Daniel Pauly, eds. (5 June 2009). "Hippoglossus hippoglossus". Fishbase. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  3. ^ Chapleau, Francois & Amaoka, Kunio (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N., ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. xxx. ISBN 0-12-547665-5. 
  4. ^ a b c d Bigelow, Henry B.; Schroeder, William C. (1953). "Atlantic halibut". Fishery Bulletin of the Fish and Wildlife Service 53 (74): 249. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  5. ^ a b c Atlantic halibut Gulf of Maine Research Institute: Fishery Bulletin of the Fish and Wildlife Service (February, 2006)
  6. ^ "Atlantic Halibut". Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2006-05-31. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  7. ^ Sobel, J (1996). "Hippoglossus hippoglossus". IUCN Red List. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  8. ^ Greenpeace International Seafood Red list
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!