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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

In sheltered coastal bays and sand and mud slopes in depths over 20 m (Ref. 48635); also in coastal trawling grounds. Juveniles sometimes in shallow estuaries on algae reefs (Ref. 48635). Sometimes forms schools. Feeds on bottom-living invertebrates. Sexually mature upon reaching 15-17 cm SL. Sometimes caught with handlines and marketed dried (Ref. 9775) or fresh. In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253).
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Distribution

Indo-West Pacific: southern Japan to the Indo-Malaysian region, probably eastward to India. Has often been confused w/ the young of Gymnocranius grandoculis, hence its distributional limits are somewhat obscure. Records of Gymnocranius griseus from the Western Indian Ocean probably pertain to Gymnocranius grandoculis.
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Eastern Indian Ocean, Western Pacific: India east to Philippines, north to southern Japan. (Records from Western Indian Ocean and Red Sea probably based on *G. grandoculis*).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9 - 10; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9 - 10
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Size

Maximum size: 350 mm TL
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Max. size

35.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295))
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Diagnostic Description

Description: Eye diameter is relatively large, its diameter about equal to or slightly larger than preorbital and interorbital width. Overall color is silvery, frequently with a diffuse vivid pattern of 5 to 8 narrow dark bars on the side, including one through the eye and across the cheek. Fins are mainly clear to yellowish; sometimes there is diffuse mottling or spotting on dorsal, caudal and anal fins. Often there is a narrow brown bar across the base of the pectoral fins. Some adults possess a few scattered blue spots or scribbling on the snout and cheek (Ref. 2295). Relatively ovoid body and pointed caudal lobes are distinct (Ref. 37816). Body depth 1.9-2.3 in SL (Ref. 90102).
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Description

Found in coastal trawling grounds. Sometimes forms schools. Feeds on bottom-living invertebrates. Sexually mature upon reaching 15-17 cm SL. Sometimes caught with handlines and is occasionally marketed dried (Ref. 9775).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 15 - 80 m (Ref. 2295)
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Depth range based on 153 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 102 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 11 - 167
  Temperature range (°C): 18.533 - 27.698
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.164 - 15.328
  Salinity (PPS): 33.783 - 35.156
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.617 - 4.712
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 1.226
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.829 - 24.864

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 11 - 167

Temperature range (°C): 18.533 - 27.698

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.164 - 15.328

Salinity (PPS): 33.783 - 35.156

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.617 - 4.712

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 1.226

Silicate (umol/l): 0.829 - 24.864
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 20 - 80m.
From 20 to 80 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Found on the continental shelf (Ref. 75154).
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Diseases and Parasites

Propycnadenoides Infestaton. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Arthur, J.R. and S. Lumanlan-Mayo 1997 Checklist of the parasites of fishes of the Philippines. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 369, 102 p. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 26129)
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Cucullanus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Arthur, J.R. and S. Lumanlan-Mayo 1997 Checklist of the parasites of fishes of the Philippines. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 369, 102 p. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 26129)
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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Classification

In Pentapodidae in <130>
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Gymnocranius griseus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gymnocranius griseus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
  • Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba and K.E. Carpenter 1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 9. Rome, FAO. 103 p. (Ref. 171)
  • van der Elst, R. 1993 A guide to the common sea fishes of southern Africa. (3rd Ed.). Struik Publishers, Cape Town. 398 p. (Ref. 12484)
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