Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: flounder (English), lenguado (Espanol)
 
Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867)


Fine flounder


Body height ~ 45% of SL; head length ~ 30% of SL; eyes on left side, separated by a flat space without a ridge; mouth long, 44% of head length, ends under rear of eye; teeth are large canines, especially at front of mouth; 21-26 gill rakers; dorsal fin begins over upper eye,  65-75; anal fin 54-59; bases of pelvics symmetric; urinary papilla on eye side, immediately behind level of anus; lateral line scales 95-112; eye-side scales rough, large fish with small accessory scales between larger body scales; blind side scales smooth; lateral line extending onto head, with branches to upper eye and below lower eye, strongly arched over pectoral fin.


Eye side brown to grey, with or without pale and dark spots and blotches, fins lighter than body, unpaired ones marked like body, pectoral and pelvic with small dark spots, often in rows on pectoral.


Size: 70 cm.

Habitat: sandy bottoms.

Depth: 1-35 m.

Ecuador to Chile.
   
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Biology

Inhabits soft bottom area of the continental shelf (Ref. 11035).
  • CENAIM 1992 A field guide to the edible fishes and shellfishes in coastal waters of Ecuador. Centro Nacional de Acuicultura e Investigaciones Marinas (CENAIM), Ecuador. 95 p. (Ref. 11035)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

This southeastern Pacific species is found from Ecuador to Chile.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, TEP non-endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily, Peruvian province, primarily, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Vagrant

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern Pacific: Ecuador to Chile.
  • CENAIM 1992 A field guide to the edible fishes and shellfishes in coastal waters of Ecuador. Centro Nacional de Acuicultura e Investigaciones Marinas (CENAIM), Ecuador. 95 p. (Ref. 11035)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern Pacific off northwestern South America.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 35 (S)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 72 - 77; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 57 - 65
  • Nakamura, I., T. Inada, M. Takeda and H. Hatanaka 1986 Important fishes trawled off Patagonia. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo. 369 p. (Ref. 27363)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Length max (cm): 70.0 (S)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 700 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

70.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 11035))
  • CENAIM 1992 A field guide to the edible fishes and shellfishes in coastal waters of Ecuador. Centro Nacional de Acuicultura e Investigaciones Marinas (CENAIM), Ecuador. 95 p. (Ref. 11035)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Pectoral fins short, about half of head on ocular side and about one-third of head on blind side. Caudal fin double truncate (Ref. 27363).
  • Nakamura, I., T. Inada, M. Takeda and H. Hatanaka 1986 Important fishes trawled off Patagonia. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo. 369 p. (Ref. 27363)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Adults of this species inhabit soft substrata on the continental shelf, whereas juveniles occur in shallower waters including estuaries and mangrove habitats. It feeds on mobile invertebrates and fishes (Medina et al. 2004). This species is found at depths to 35 m.

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

demersal; marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 12 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 3 - 76.5
  Temperature range (°C): 16.357 - 25.489
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.287 - 10.127
  Salinity (PPS): 34.827 - 34.991
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.183 - 4.663
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.143 - 1.856
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.670 - 10.807

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 3 - 76.5

Temperature range (°C): 16.357 - 25.489

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.287 - 10.127

Salinity (PPS): 34.827 - 34.991

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.183 - 4.663

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.143 - 1.856

Silicate (umol/l): 3.670 - 10.807
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), octopus/squid/cuttlefish, bony fishes
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Paralichthys adspersus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Nielsen, J.G., Munroe, T., Tyler, J. & Bussing, W.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread throughout the southeastern Pacific. It has no major threats and can be found in Marine Protected Areas. Therefore, this species is listed as Least Concern.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species. This is an important in commercial fisheries in Chile (Pequeno 1989).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species specific conservation measures. However, this species' distribution is included in a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Humboldt Current region.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • CENAIM 1992 A field guide to the edible fishes and shellfishes in coastal waters of Ecuador. Centro Nacional de Acuicultura e Investigaciones Marinas (CENAIM), Ecuador. 95 p. (Ref. 11035)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Fine flounder

The Fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) is a species of large-tooth flounder native to the eastern Pacific Ocean, along the continental shelf from the coast of Ecuador in the north to the coast of Peru in the south.

It is a medium sized flatfish, growing up to 70 cm in length, with females typically being larger than males. It is a game fish, caught by an artisanal fishery off the Peruvian coast.

The species is a predator, feeding off smaller fishes in its habitat.

The fine flounder was first collected by Charles Darwin in the Galapagos Islands and was described in 1842 as Hippoglossus kingii, which would have placed it in the left-eye flounder family. However, the description of H. kingii has been determined to lack sufficient information to absolutely determine which species it describes and is thus considered ambiguous and therefore is not valid.

References[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!