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BiologyOccur on rocky reefs and muddy substrates of the continental shelf and upper slope, forming dense schools close to the bottom at dawn and dusk and dispersing throughout the water column at night to feed (Ref. 9563). Juveniles also aggregate in schools (Ref. 33987) and are found in estuaries and shallow costal waters (Ref. 9833). Feed on small fish, crustaceans and mollusks (Ref. 27111).