Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: flounder (English), lenguado (Espanol)
 
Cyclopsetta querna (Jordan & Bollman, 1890)


Toothed flounder


Body an elongate oval, depth 43-57% of SL; eyes on left side of head, separated by flat, narrow to moderate space; mouth large, top jaw 50-56% of head length, ends at or just behind rear edge of eye; jaws on blind side not arched; 1 row of immovable teeth on both jaws, with a pair of canines at front of top jaw, teeth strong & widely separated on lower jaw; gill rakers short and stout, with sharp teeth, 7-10 lower rakers; dorsal fin origin before top eye; dorsal rays 89-93; anal rays 70-74; base of eye side pelvic on body midline; urinary papilla on blind side behind anus; lateral line relatively straight, from just behind eye to base of tail fin, 87-101 scales, tubes very branched; scales small, smooth on both eyed and blind sides. 



Dark brown with faint indication of lighter cross bars; 2-3 large blackish spots on dorsal and anal fins, a dark blotch in middle of tail fin.


Size: reaches at least 43 cm.

Often caught by trawlers on sand or mud bottoms.

Depth: 1-92 m.

The Gulf of California to Peru.

   
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Biology

Inhabits soft bottoms, from within the vicinity of mangrove areas up to a depth of 29 m (Ref. 9330). Feeds on large benthic invertebrates and small fishes (Ref. 9330). Utilized fresh (Ref. 9330).
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from southern Baja California and the Gulf of California to Peru.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru.
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
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Eastern central Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 92 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 43.0 (S)
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Size

Max. size

39.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763))
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Type Information

Type for Cyclopsetta querna
Catalog Number: USNM 41159
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1888
Locality: Panama: Gulf of Panama, Ecuador to Panama, Panama, Gulf of Panama, Pacific
Vessel: Albatross
  • Type:
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Paratype for Cyclopsetta querna
Catalog Number: USNM 41223
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1888
Locality: Ecuador To Panama, Panama, Pacific
Depth (m): 29 to 29
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This benthic species inhabits soft bottoms to depths of approximately 140 m, but can also enter fresh water from shallow estuaries and mangroves (Hensley 1995).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 55763)
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Depth range based on 48 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 5 - 214
  Temperature range (°C): 12.151 - 12.151
  Nitrate (umol/L): 25.719 - 25.719
  Salinity (PPS): 34.778 - 34.778
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.149 - 0.149
  Phosphate (umol/l): 2.601 - 2.601
  Silicate (umol/l): 32.989 - 32.989

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 5 - 214
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 29m.
Recorded at 29 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Salinity: Marine, Brackish

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel, Estuary, Mangrove

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits soft bottoms, from within the vicinity of mangrove areas up to a depth of 29 m. Feeds on large benthic invertebrates and small fishes.
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), octopus/squid/cuttlefish, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cyclopsetta querna

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
van der Heiden, A.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and is common in at least parts of its range. There are no major threats for this species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
No population information is available for this species. However, it is considered to be common in many parts of its range.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species. It is important for subsistence fisheries and is utilized fresh (Hensley 1995).
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species' distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: unreliable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this order
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
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