Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: wrasse (English), vieja (Espanol), arco iris (Espanol)
 
Thalassoma lucasanum (Gill, 1862)


Cortez rainbow wrasse



Elongate, slender, compressed body; 1 pair canines at front of top jaw, 1 pair on bottom, none at rear of jaws; preopercle edge smooth; dorsal fin VIII, 13; anal rays III, 11; pectoral rays 15; tail fin concave; lateral line unbroken, but bends abruptly down near end of soft dorsal fin; scales large (26-27 on lateral line), smooth; head scaleless.


IP:  with pair of bright yellow and red stripes bordering broad dark brown to greenish stripe from snout through eye along head and body; TP:  body purplish, a broad yellow bar just behind head; tail bluish; head bluish with darker blue-green stripes below eye; pectoral yellow, with blue margin.


Maximum size to 15 cm.

Forms aggregations that feed on plankton around rocky and coral reefs, also feeds on benthic crustaceans, and fish eggs; the young sometimes "clean" parasites from other fishes.

Depth: 0-64 m.

Central Baja and the Central Gulf of California to central Peru, plus all the offshore islands except Clipperton.
   
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Biology

Forms small aggregations over reefs. Feeds on suspended plankton and small hard-shelled invertebrates. Not utilized for human consumption.
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Distribution

Range Description

Thalassoma lucasanum is found in southern Baja and the Central Gulf of California to Ecuador. It is also known from all the offshore islands except for Clipperton.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru, including the Galapagos.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 64 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 15.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 150 mm TL
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Max. size

15.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9311))
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Type Information

Type for Julis lucasanus
Catalog Number: USNM 3677
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Xantus
Locality: Cape St. Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific
  • Type:
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Type for Julis lucasanus
Catalog Number: USNM 3676
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Xantus
Locality: Cape St. Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific
  • Type:
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Type for Julis lucasanus
Catalog Number: USNM 4396
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Xantus
Locality: Cape St. Lucas, Lower California., Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Thalassoma lucasanum forms aggregations that feed on plankton around rocky and coral reefs to depths of 45 m. It also feeds on benthic crustaceans, and fish eggs; and the young sometimes "clean" parasites from other fishes. It is a pelagic spawner, and sex reversal is completed in 2–6 weeks (Sadovy and Shapiro 1987; Warner 1982).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 0 - 64 m (Ref. 9311), usually 2 - 25 m (Ref. 27115)
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Depth range based on 85 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 27 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.3 - 64
  Temperature range (°C): 24.258 - 27.666
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.162 - 9.845
  Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 35.023
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.830 - 4.879
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 0.831
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 6.045

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.3 - 64

Temperature range (°C): 24.258 - 27.666

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.162 - 9.845

Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 35.023

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.830 - 4.879

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 0.831

Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 6.045
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 64m.
Recorded at 64 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Mid Water, Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Corals, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Forms small aggregations over reefs. Feeds on suspended plankton and small hard-shelled invertebrates (Ref. 9311). Planktivore (Ref. 57615).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore, Planktivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins, zooplankton, pelagic fish eggs, ectoparasites
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Pelagic spawner. Sex reversal is completed in 2-6 weeks (Ref. 34185, 32213).
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Thalassoma lucasanum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Allen, G.R., Robertson, R.D., Edgar, G., Rivera, F., Zapata, F., Merlen, G., Barraza, E., Victor, B. & Medina, B.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.

Justification
Thalassoma lucasanum has been assessed as Least Concern. This species is a small abundant wrasse in the in the eastern Pacific. It is not fished for consumption, but may be collected for aquarium trade. There are no major threats known.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
Thalassoma lucasanum is abundant but there are no specific estimates of population (J.H. Choat, pers. comm. 2008 as pers. comm. from R. Robertson).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to Thalassoma lucasanum. It could possibly be collected for the aquarium trade.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures known for Thalassoma lucasanum. This species distribution overlaps with several marine protected areas.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Thalassoma lucasanum

The Cortez rainbow wrasse , Thalassoma lucasanum, is a species of wrasse native to the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to Peru, as well as around the Galapagos Islands. It is a reef inhabitant, occurring in small schools at depths of from the surface to 64 m (210 ft), though rarely deeper than 25 m (82 ft) or shallower than 2 m (6.6 ft). This species can reach 15 cm (5.9 in) in total length. It can also be found in the aquarium trade.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Allen, G.R., Robertson, R.D., Edgar, G., Rivera, F., Zapata, F., Merlen, G., Barraza, E., Victor, B. & Medina, B. 2010. Thalassoma lucasanum. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 November 2013.
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Thalassoma lucasanum" in FishBase. October 2013 version.
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