Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: wrasse (English), señorita (Espanol)
 
Halichoeres adustus (Gilbert, 1890)


Black wrasse



Elongate, compressed; enlarged canine teeth at front of both jaws (1 pair above, 2 pairs below), a canine at rear of top jaws; dorsal fin IX, 11; anal rays III, 12; pectoral rays 12; lateral line unbroken, but abruptly bent down under rear of dorsal fin, its tubes branched, except those on tail base; lateral line with 27 pored scales.


IP:  dark grey-brown, nearly blackish except lighter on head and breast; head and body with numerous small blue or white spots arranged in longitudinal rows; tail fin with broad white posterior marking; TP:  uniformly dark brown or blackish with narrow bluish margin on median fins; juveniles similar to IP except a white bar at level of posterior part of pectoral fin, a white-edged black spot on middle of dorsal fin, and several large white blotches scattered on side.

Size: reaches at least 12.5 cm.

Habitat: common on rocky reefs.

Depth: 0-5 m.

The Revillagigedos, Isla del Coco and the Galapagos, also the Tres Marias Islands in the SE Gulf of California, vagrants at Cabo San Lucas, Costa Rica and Colombia.
   
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Biology

Generally encountered around islands, over rocky bottoms (Ref. 9311).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found only in the Revillagigedo, Cocos, Galápagos and the Tres Marias Islands.This species was recorded as a vagrant at Cabo San Lucas (Baja California), in Nicoya (Costa Rica), and in Ensenada de Utria (Colombia). Depth information is from the original description.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, TEP oceanic island (s) endemic, Multiple oceanic islands endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Pacific: Revillagigedo Islands and Cocos Island.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 5 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 12.5 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 125 mm TL
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Max. size

12.5 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9311))
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Type Information

Type for Pseudojulis adustus
Catalog Number: USNM 44275
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1889
Locality: Socorro Island., Socorro Island, Mexico, Revillagigedo Islands, Pacific
Vessel: Albatross
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This reef-associated species is generally encountered around islands, over shallow rocky substrate to depths of five m. Very little is known on this species biology.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 3 m (Ref. 9311)
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Depth range based on 9 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 8 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.3 - 7.5
  Temperature range (°C): 27.485 - 27.666
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.599 - 2.498
  Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 33.044
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.602 - 4.671
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 0.409
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 2.926

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.3 - 7.5

Temperature range (°C): 27.485 - 27.666

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.599 - 2.498

Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 33.044

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.602 - 4.671

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 0.409

Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 2.926
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 1 - 3m.
From 1 to 3 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Halichoeres adustus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
D2

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Allen, G. & Edgar, G.

Reviewer/s
Robertson, R. & Carpenter, K.

Contributor/s

Justification
The majority of this species breeding population is only known from one location (Cocos Island), where it is common. This species is considered rare (three locations), or a vagrant in the the remainder of its restricted range. Regional experts support the plausible threat of the increased duration and frequency of ENSO events that can cause severe and rapid declines for restricted-range, shallow-water species. Although the species occurs within a Marine Protected Area, the protection does not extend to the threatening environmental changes the ENSO event creates. This species qualifies for Vulnerable under Criterion D2. However, more research is needed on this phenomenon, and this species should be reassessed when new information is available.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species. This species is considered rare in many parts of its range including the Galápagos archipelago. It is considered common in Cocos Island, where is the majority of the breeding population is present.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The majority of this species range is largely confined to Cocos Island, where El Nino is regarded as severe threat. In the Eastern Tropical Pacific, severe localized fish species declines have occurred after strong ENSO events (Grove 1985, Edgar et al. 2009). The frequency and duration of ENSO events in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific appears to be increasing (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004). Given this species' restricted distribution and shallow water habitat, oceanographic environmental changes, such as those associated with future ENSO events, may have detrimental effects on the survival of this species.
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Vulnerable (VU) (D2)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species is present in Marine Protected Areas in the Cocos, Galápagos, and Revillagigedos Islands (WDPA 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
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Wikipedia

Halichoeres adustus

The black wrasse, Halichoeres adustus, is a species of wrasse native to the eastern Pacific Ocean around Cocos Island, the Revillagigedo Islands, Tres Marias Islands, and the Galapagos.[1] This species prefers areas with rocky bottoms at depths from 1 to 3 m (3.3 to 9.8 ft). It can reach 12.5 cm (4.9 in) in total length.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Allen, G. & Edgar, G. 2010. Halichoeres adustus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 November 2013.
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Halichoeres adustus" in FishBase. August 2013 version.
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