Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults inhabit rocky bottoms (Ref. 2683). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Sold fresh in markets.
  • Gomon, M.F. 2006 A revision of the labrid fish genus Bodianus with descriptions of eight new species. Rec. Aust. Mus. Suppl. 30:1-133. (Ref. 75973)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Macaronesian archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary and Cape Verde Islands (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008). Based on 100 m bathymetry, the area of occupancy of this species is estimated to be less than 2,000 km2.
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Eastern Atlantic: Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde.
  • Gomon, M.F. and P. Forsyth 1990 Labridae. p. 868-882. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon, SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5292)
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Eastern Atlantic: Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 430 mm ---
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Max. size

43.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683))
  • Schneider, W. 1990 FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine resources of the Gulf of Guinea. Prepared and published with the support of the FAO Regional Office for Africa. Rome: FAO. 268 p. (Ref. 2683)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is a large species with males reaching at least 70 cm TL in the Azores (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008). A maximum length of 80 cm has been recorded (Hanquet 2005).

It inhabits rocky reefs of island shores and offshore reefs and shallow banks in depths from 20-100 m. It prefers areas of high bottom relief and strong hydrodynamic conditions.

It feeds mainly on macro invertebrates (sea urchins, gastropods, etc.). It is a sequential protogynous hermaphrodite (all males result from sex-changing females at 45-65 cm TL). It shows marked haremic territorial system, typically one male to two to three females (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008). Supposedly a pelagic spawner, it does not build a nest or provide any parental care. Juveniles occur isolated below 30 m, sheltering within reef crevices and holes.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 20 - 200 m (Ref. 5292)
  • Gomon, M.F. and P. Forsyth 1990 Labridae. p. 868-882. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon, SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5292)
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Depth: 20 - 200m.
From 20 to 200 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
  • Quignard, J.-P. and A. Pras 1986 Labridae. p. 919-942. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4742)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Bodianus scrofa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

AAAGATATTGGCACCCTCTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTTGGGACCGCGCTA---AGTTTACTTATCCGGGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCGGGCGCCCTCCTTGGGGAC---GACCAAATTTACAATGTAATCGTTACGGCACATGCGTTCGTAATGATCTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATCATAATCGGAGGCTTTGGAAACTGACTTATTCCCTTAATG---ATCGGAGCCCCCGACATAGCCTTCCCTCGAATGAATAATATAAGCTTTTGACTTCTTCCTCCATCTTTCCTCCTTCTCCTTGCCTCTTCGGGAGTTGAAGCCGGGGCAGGAACCGGATGAACTGTCTACCCCCCATTAGCAGGCAATCTCGCTCACGCAGGGGCCTCAGTTGACCTA---ACCATCTTCTCTCTTCACTTAGCAGGGATCTCCTCAATTCTAGGGGCCATCAATTTTATTACAACTATCATCAACATAAAACCCCCAGCTATCTCCCAATACCAGACCCCCTTATTTGTCTGATCCGTCTTAATTACAGCAGTACTTCTTCTACTCTCACTCCCAGTCCTTGCCGCT---GGTATTACAATGCTTCTAACGGACCGAAATCTAAATACTACCTTCTTCGACCCCGCGGGGGGAGGAGACCCAATTCTATACCAACACCTCTTCTGATTTTTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bodianus scrofa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
B2ab(iv,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Russell, B., Afonso, P. & Pollard, D.

Reviewer/s
Liu, M. & Sadovy, Y.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a restricted distribution in the eastern Atlantic, and is only known from five island groups with an area of occupancy estimated to be less than 2,000 km2. It is fished throughout its range, and there have been significant localized population declines in many parts of its range (such as in Madeira and the Canary Islands). This species is listed as Vulnerable.
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Population

Population
There has a been a population decline throughout its range.

In the Azores it is common on rocky reefs from 15-50 m depth all across the archipelago and offshore shallow banks with suitable habitat, but naturally occurs in scarce numbers , especially in the northernmost islands (Afonso 2002).

In Madeira (Ribeiro et al. 2005, Ribeiro et al. 2006) and the Canaries (Falcón et al. 1996) populations are less numerous, or even absent locally, although in the recent past they have supported local multispecies fisheries. The very limited information available also points to the rarity of this species in the Cape Verdes (Monteiro et al. 2008), its southern distribution limit (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is threatened by overfishing throughout its restricted range. Sensitivity to recreational fishing is also of major concern throughout its range due to increasing boatfishing and freediving.

In the Canary Islands it was recently considered commercially threatened due to overexploitation, mostly in the 1990s (Brito and Morales 1998). In Madeira it is rare or absent, most probably due to overfishing and habitat degradation of the coastal communities in past decades. In the Azores, numbers have been reduced in fished areas in recent years, particularly those of larger (male) individuals (Afonso 2002, Afonso et al. 2006).
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Vulnerable (VU) (B2ab(iv,v))
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range. The efficacy of these marine protected areas is not known.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Gomon, M.F. 1981 Labridae. In W. Fischer, G. Bianchi and W.B. Scott (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Central Atlantic; fishing areas 34, 47 (in part). Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada and FAO. Vol. 2. pag. var. (Ref. 3637)
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Wikipedia

Barred hogfish

The barred hogfish, Bodianus scrofa, is a species of wrasse native to the eastern Atlantic Ocean, where it occurs around the various island groups from the Azores to Cape Verde. This species occurs on rocky reefs at depths of 20 to 200 m (66 to 660 ft). It can reach a length of 43 cm (17 in), though most do not exceed 30 cm (12 in). It is of minor importance to local commercial fisheries.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Russell, B., Afonso, P. & Pollard, D. 2010. Bodianus scrofa. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 November 2013.
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Bodianus scrofa" in FishBase. August 2013 version.
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