Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: moray (English), morena (Espanol)
 
Gymnothorax verrilli (Jordan & Gilbert, 1883)

White-edged moray

Body slender; tail about 1/2 TL; head ~ 31% of trunk length; eyes large, nearer end of mouth than front; front nostril a short tube; rear nostril a hole at skin level over front of eye; mouth 1/3 of head length; lower jaw curved, so mouth does not close completely; jaw teeth conical, straight to slightly curved and compressed, not serrated; top jaw with 3 rows of teeth at front, 1 series along side; teeth on roof of mouth in 1 short row; gill opening small, a little wider than eye; dorsal and anal fins covered with skin, but evident, dorsal high (greatest height > ½ body depth), with origin midway between gill opening and eye.

Preserved fish: Pale brown, finely freckled; dorsal with black border, narrow white margin; anal with white border .


Size: 45 cm.

Habitat: sand and mud bottoms.

Depth: 0-10 m.

Costa Rica and Panama and southern Baja California.
   
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Biology

Inhabits sand and mud bottoms until at least 10 m in depth.
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Distribution

Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 10 (S)
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Range Description

This species is found in the Eastern Pacific, near southern Baja California, and from Costa Rica to Panama.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Eastern Central Pacific: southern Baja California to Panama.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 45.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 430 mm ---
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Max. size

43.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9324))
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Ecology

Habitat

Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This demersal species inhabits sand and mud substrate to a depth of at least 10m.

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth: 0 - 10m.
Recorded at 10 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range ? - 10 m (Ref. 9324)
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Depth range based on 3 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 7 - 35

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 7 - 35
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), octopus/squid/cuttlefish, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
McCosker, J. & Béarez, P.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a disjunct and relatively restricted range in the Eastern Pacific. However, there are no major threats known to this shallow water species or its generalized sand/mud habitat. It is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
No population information is available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known specific conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas (WDPA 2006).
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Wikipedia

Gymnothorax verrilli

The white-edged moray,[1] Gymnothorax verrilli, is a moray eel found in the eastern central Pacific Ocean.[2] It was first named by Jordan and Gilbert in 1883,[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Common names for Gymnothorax verrilli at www.fishbase.org.
  2. ^ a b Gymnothorax verrilli at www.fishbase.org.
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