Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: grunt (English), burro (Espanol)
 
Anisotremus caesius (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882)


Long-fin grunt,     Silver-grey grunt



Body deep, compressed, back high; head short, blunt; mouth small, low, ~ horizontal, lips fleshy; inside mouth not red; teeth in bands on jaws, outer ones larger, conical, none on center roof of mouth; a pair of conspicuous pores plus a central groove under the chin; preopercle finely serrated; dorsal continuous but deeply notched, 4th  spine longest, XII, 15-16; anal III, 9-10, 2nd  spine long and thick; longest dorsal spine and 2nd  anal spine < ½ head length; pectoral fins relatively long, reaching to or beyond anal fin origin; tail forked; scales moderate to large, rough, over entire body and head except front of snout, lips and chin, on membranes between dorsal and anal soft rays; lines of scales above lateral line in rows parallel to lateral line; lateral-line scales 50-54.
Most of head and body golden or yellowish becoming white on lower sides; a broad blackish bar immediately behind head; fins mainly yellowish.

Size: grows to at least 30 cm.

Occurs on rocky reefs; sometimes seen with Anisotremus taeniatus, but usually not as common as that species.

Depth: 3-25 m.

Mexico (Mazatlan) to Peru, and Cocos.
   
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Biology

Benthic over hard, rock and rubble bottoms (Ref. 9114). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9114).
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from Mazatlan, Mexico to Peru, including Cocos Island.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: Mexico to Peru.
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 3 (S) - 25 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 30.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm ---
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Max. size

30.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9114))
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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Diagnostic Description

Body compressed and deep (depth contained 2.0 to 2.1 times in standard length); mouth small and terminal with thick, fleshy lips; dorsal fin with 12 spines and 15 to 16 soft rays (XII, 15-16); pectoral fins slightly longer than head, reaching origin of anal fin; lateral line with 50 to 54 scales; scale series above lateral line parallel to it; body entirely golden gray with an indistinct dark stripe from nape to base of pectoral fins; flanks indistinctly striated; pelvic fins almost black (Ref. 55763).
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Type Information

Type for Anisotremus caesius
Catalog Number: USNM 29632
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Gilbert
Year Collected: 1880
Locality: Mexico: Mazatlan., Sinaloa, Mexico, Pacific
  • Type: Jordan, D. S. & Gilbert, C. H. 1882(1881). Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 4 (242): 383.
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Type for Anisotremus caesius
Catalog Number: USNM 28158
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Gilbert
Year Collected: 1880
Locality: Mexico: Mazatlan., Sinaloa, Mexico, Pacific
  • Type: Jordan, D. S. & Gilbert, C. H. 1882(1881). Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 4 (242): 383.
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Type for Anisotremus caesius
Catalog Number: USNM 28333
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Gilbert
Locality: Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico, Pacific
  • Type: Jordan, D. S. & Gilbert, C. H. 1882(1881). Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 4 (242): 383.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This benthic, demersal species can be found over hard rock and rubble substrate (McKay and Schneider, 1995), and in rocky habitat in estuaries to depths of 25m. It was found over a massive coral reef in the Gulf of Chiriquí (Dominici-Arosemena and Wolff, 2006).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine
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Depth range based on 9 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.3 - 35
  Temperature range (°C): 25.609 - 25.609
  Nitrate (umol/L): 9.845 - 9.845
  Salinity (PPS): 33.754 - 33.754
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.830 - 3.830
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.831 - 0.831
  Silicate (umol/l): 6.045 - 6.045

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1.3 - 35
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Benthic over hard, rock and rubble bottoms (Ref. 9114).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Anisotremus caesius

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anisotremus caesius

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Allen, G., Robertson, R. & Zapata, F.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and uncommon throughout its range. There are no known major threats to this species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is uncommon throughout most if its range. Near Buenaventura, Colombia, it is moderately common in rocky areas in estuaries. In Gulf Dulce, Costa Rica, this species was recorded to have a mean density of 0.004 ind/ m2.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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