Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: toadfish (English), pez-perro (Espanol), sapo (Espanol)
 
Batrachoides pacifici (Günther, 1861)


Pacific toadfish



Body elongate, depressed at front, compressed at rear; head broad, depressed; filaments on snout back to level of eyes; eyes large; mouth strongly oblique, lower jaw projecting; teeth pointed; 2 solid spines on upper opercle and 2 below and behind those; dorsal fin with 3 solid spines, spiny and soft parts joined; dorsal rays III + 25-27; anal rays 21-23; dorsal and anal fins not joined to tail fin; 12-14 glandular pores on membranes on inner side of pectoral fin; 2 lateral lines, the upper broken below middle portion of second dorsal fin and again below posterior most dorsal rays, no light organs; body covered with small imbedded scales; head and breast without scales;  scales on nape reach before transverse lateral line canal.


Generally brown, darker on back; belly whitish; body and dorsal fin with dark bars; a dark brown oblique bar sometimes evident on cheek.


Size: reaches 32 cm.

Inhabits sand bottoms adjacent to rocky areas, also occurs in tidepools.

Depth: 1-20 m.



Costa Rica to Peru.
   
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Biology

Sometimes enters fresh water (Ref. 9277).
  • Collette, B.B. 1995 Batrachoididae. Peje-sapos, sapos. p. 910-918. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9277)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific region, and is found from southern Costa Rica to southern Peru.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, Panamic province endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: Panama canal to northern Peru.
  • Collette, B.B. 1995 Batrachoididae. Peje-sapos, sapos. p. 910-918. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9277)
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 20 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 32.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 286 mm SL
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Max. size

43.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763))
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Diagnostic Description

Body depressed and moderately elongated; head wide and depressed; mouth large; eyes dorsal; gill openings located at back of the head; dorsal with 3 spines; pelvic fins sub-jugular; dorsal and anal fins free from caudal fin; anal fin with 21 to 25 rays; lateral lines two, fewer than 52 pores in the upper line and fewer than 48 in the lower; photophores lacking around the anus; body reddish brown, with some darker dorsal-lateral spots along the second dorsal fin and numerous blotches, some brown and some white, especially on the head (Ref. 55763).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species lives over soft substrate, and sometimes enters fresh water (Collette 1995).

Systems
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; freshwater; brackish; marine
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Depth range based on 31 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 50

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 50
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Brackish, Freshwater

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel, Estuary, Freshwater

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, octopus/squid/cuttlefish, sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Benthic, No pelagic larva, No pelagic phase
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Collette, B., Acero, A. & Betancur, R.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread and common in the Eastern Pacific region. No major threats to this species are known, and there is no current indication of population decline from its exploitation by minor fisheries within its range. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is common in collections, although no other population information is available.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Although not considered to cause population decline at this time, this species is exploited in minor fisheries. It has been used since pre-colombian times as food source by indigenous peoples in Central America (Cooke 1992).
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species' distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Tropical Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: unknown; price reliability:
  • Collette, B.B. 1995 Batrachoididae. Peje-sapos, sapos. p. 910-918. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9277)
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