Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: silverside (English), plateadito (Espanol), pejerrey (Espanol)
 
Atherinella nepenthe (Myers & Wade, 1942)

Pitcher silverside

Top of head profile ~ straight, depth of head 16.4-19.9% of SL; top jaw not very extendible, encloses lower jaw when mouth is closed; origin of first dorsal over origin of anal; base of last ray of second dorsal fin behind base of last ray of anal fin; pectorals reach tips of pelvics; pelvics not reaching to anus; 2 rows of scales along base of anal fin.



Lateral stripe narrow, < diameter of eye, 2.5 scale rows wide, not narrowing at rear.


Size: 10 cm.

Habitat: coastal surface.

Depth: 0-10 m?

Southern Baja to the mouth of the Gulf of California to Peru.
   
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Biology

Found in surf zone and upper water column near shore along the open coast and in bays (Ref. 36497). Oviparous, with planktonic larvae (Ref. 36497).
  • Lavenberg, R.J. and M. Chernoff 1995 Atherinidae. Pejerreyes. p. 889-901. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9273)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found from central Baja and the mouth of the Gulf of California to Peru.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Central Pacific: Baja California, Mexico to Peru.
  • Lavenberg, R.J. and M. Chernoff 1995 Atherinidae. Pejerreyes. p. 889-901. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9273)
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Eastern Pacific, Baja California to Peru: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Peru.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (F) - 10 (F)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 3 - 6; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9 - 11; Analspines: 1; Analsoft rays: 24 - 30; Vertebrae: 39 - 41
  • Watson, W. 1996 Atherinidae: silversides. p. 608-619. In H.G. Moser (ed.) The early stages of fishes in the California Current region. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) Atlas No. 33. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 1505 p. (Ref. 36497)
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Size

Length max (cm): 10.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 100 mm TL
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Max. size

10.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9273))
  • Lavenberg, R.J. and M. Chernoff 1995 Atherinidae. Pejerreyes. p. 889-901. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9273)
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Diagnostic Description

Branchiostegal rays: 6 (Ref. 36497).
  • Watson, W. 1996 Atherinidae: silversides. p. 608-619. In H.G. Moser (ed.) The early stages of fishes in the California Current region. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) Atlas No. 33. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 1505 p. (Ref. 36497)
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Type Information

Paratype for Nectarges nepenthe
Catalog Number: USNM 119020
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): N. Scofield
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: California: Off Arroyo De San Luis Baja, Baja California, Mexico, Pacific
  • Paratype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This pelagic species is found in the surf zone and in the near shore upper water column along the open coast and in bays and estuaries (Watson, 1996).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

pelagic-neritic; marine; depth range 0 - 9 m (Ref. 58018)
  • Bogutskaya, N.G. 2007 Preliminary assignment of coordinates to type localities in the Catalog of Fishes. Unpublished dbf file. (Ref. 58018)
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 1

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Brackish

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Surface, Near Surface, Water column only

Habitat: Estuary, Water column

FishBase Habitat: Pelagic
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Planktivore

Diet: zooplankton, pelagic fish eggs, pelagic fish larvae
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous (Ref. 36497).
  • Watson, W. 1996 Atherinidae: silversides. p. 608-619. In H.G. Moser (ed.) The early stages of fishes in the California Current region. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) Atlas No. 33. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 1505 p. (Ref. 36497)
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Benthic, Pelagic larva
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Espinosa, H., Findley, L., Collette,B., Cotto, A. & Rojas, P.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific region and is abundant at least part of its range. There is no current indication of population decline from coastal development in some areas within its range. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is abundant in parts of Mexico.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Although not considered a major threat at this time, coastal development in some areas may negatively affect this species and its near shore, shallow-water habitat.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the eastern tropical Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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