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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: puffer (English), tamboril (Espanol)
 
Sphoeroides angusticeps (Jenyns, 1842)


Narrow-headed puffer,     Skin-flap puffer,     Concave puffer


Body relatively elongate, the depth ~ 29% of SL; head large, blunt; narrow (14-22% of snout length) and concave between eyes; snout short; nasal organ a short papilla with 2 small holes at end; eyes large, high on sides of head, raised above head profile;  jaws are a strong beak composed of 4 fused heavy powerful teeth with a central suture on each jaw; a slit-like gill opening in front of the pectoral fin base; a single short- based dorsal fin at rear of body; a similar-shaped anal fin with origin under or behind last few dorsal rays; dorsal rays 7-8, anal rays 7; no pelvic fins; no spines in the fins; tail fin bluntly convex, with 10 main rays; tough scaleless skin,  most of body without small spinules, a pair of small black skin flaps straddling midline of back, just behind level of gill opening .

Tan to light brown with pale mottlings, white on belly;  iris and fins yellowish, basal portion of dorsal fin usually brown;  skin flaps on back black.


Size: attains 25 cm.

Habitat: usually encountered near the bottom in sandy areas.

Depth: 5-20 m.

Galapagos, with strays to Cocos and the coast of Ecuador,    
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Biology

Hovers just above the substrate in mixed areas of sand, gravel and boulder. Buries in the sand at night (Ref. 5227).
  • Bussing, W.A. 1995 Tetraodontidae. Tamboriles, tamborines, botetes, peces globo, corrotuchos. p. 1629-1637. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9349)
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Distribution

Range Description

This insular species is endemic to the eastern tropical Pacific with resident populations in the Galapagos and Cocos islands; and with other recorded sighting from the continental mainland at Panama, Ecuador, and northern Peru.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, TEP oceanic island (s) endemic, Galapagos Islands endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s) only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: endemic to the Galapagos Islands.
  • Bussing, W.A. 1995 Tetraodontidae. Tamboriles, tamborines, botetes, peces globo, corrotuchos. p. 1629-1637. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9349)
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 5 (S) - 20 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 7
  • Jenyns, L. 1842 Fish. In C. Darwin (ed.) The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, under the command of Captain Fitzroy, R.N., during the years 1832-1836. Smith, Elder & Co., London (in 4 parts): p. 1-32 (Jan. 1840); 33-64 (Jun. 1840); 65-96 (Apr. 1841); 97-172 (Apr. 1842). (Ref. 3157)
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Size

Length max (cm): 25.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 250 mm TL
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Max. size

25.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9349))
  • Bussing, W.A. 1995 Tetraodontidae. Tamboriles, tamborines, botetes, peces globo, corrotuchos. p. 1629-1637. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9349)
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Diagnostic Description

Body inflatable.
  • Jenyns, L. 1842 Fish. In C. Darwin (ed.) The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, under the command of Captain Fitzroy, R.N., during the years 1832-1836. Smith, Elder & Co., London (in 4 parts): p. 1-32 (Jan. 1840); 33-64 (Jun. 1840); 65-96 (Apr. 1841); 97-172 (Apr. 1842). (Ref. 3157)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species hovers just above the substrate in mixed areas of sand, gravel, and boulders. It buries in the sand at night (Humann and Deloach 1993). This species is found from 5-20m.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 5 - 18 m (Ref. 5227)
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 8 - 8
 
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Depth: 5 - 18m.
From 5 to 18 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Salinity: Marine, Brackish

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Rocks, Reef and soft bottom, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, octopus/squid/cuttlefish
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Benthic, Pelagic larva
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Nielsen, J.G., Munroe, T. & Tyler, J.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
Although this species has a limited geographic range, it is found to a depth of 20m which may provide it some protection from future ENSO events. The majority of the range of this species is within Marine Protected Areas. Therefore, this species is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species specific conservation measures. However, this species is found in Marine Protected Areas within its distribution.
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