Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found onshore, most common between 110 and 185 m. Feed on crustaceans, and possibly fish and squids. Juveniles spend part of their time in estuaries.
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Distribution

Northwest Atlantic: southern New England to the northeast coast of Florida; also found in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Northwest Atlantic: Canada to southern New England to the northeast coast of Florida; also found in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Western Atlantic.
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Coastal United States, from southern New England and New York to Cape Hatteras, ranging southward as far as the offing of northern Florida in deep water.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Cohen, D. M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Analspines: 0
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Size

Maximum size: 410 mm ---
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Max. size

41.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371))
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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to 41 cm TL (male/unsexed).
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Cohen, D. M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990.
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Diagnostic Description

Upper limb of the first gill arch with 2 or 3 rakers. Head with a series of dark spots; opercle with a dusky blotch. First dorsal fin with a dark blotch and a distinct white margin.
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Ecology

Habitat

benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Occasionally found in Canadian Atlantic waters. Found at depths of 110- 185 m.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat Type: Marine

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Environment

demersal; non-migratory; marine; depth range 0 - 494 m (Ref. 57178), usually 110 - 185 m (Ref. 1371)
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
  • Ocean Biogeographic Information System 2006 OBIS-extracted Depth Data. Harvested by E.Agbayani July 2006 at www.iobis.org. (Ref. 57178)
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Depth range based on 7810 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4543 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 494
  Temperature range (°C): 4.281 - 27.598
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.286 - 23.955
  Salinity (PPS): 32.316 - 36.605
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.148 - 6.835
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 1.571
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 17.288

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 494

Temperature range (°C): 4.281 - 27.598

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.286 - 23.955

Salinity (PPS): 32.316 - 36.605

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.148 - 6.835

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 1.571

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 17.288
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 420m.
Recorded at 420 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Demersal; marine; depth to 420 m . Inshore, commonly between 110 and 185 m. Juveniles found in estuaries.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Cohen, D. M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Crustaceans, and possibly fish and squids.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Cohen, D. M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990.
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Associations

Known predators

Urophycis regia (Spotted Hake) is prey of:
Pollachius pollachius
Urophycis regia
Urophycis tenuis
Urophycis chuss
Gadidae
Melanogrammus aeglefinus
Hemitripterus americanus
Leucoraja erinacea
Leucoraja ocellata
Amblyraja radiata
Macrozoarces americanus
Brosme brosme
Anarhichas
Sebastes marinus
Scophthalmus aquosus
Paralichthys dentatus
Hippoglossoides platessoides
Hippoglossus hippoglossus
Mustelus canis
Squalus acanthias
Lophius americanus
Cynoscion
Pomatomus saltatrix

Phocidae
Scombridae
Chondrichthyes
Istiophoridae
Aves

Based on studies in:
USA, Northeastern US contintental shelf (Coastal)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
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Known prey organisms

Urophycis regia (Spotted Hake) preys on:
Ctenophora
other worms
Chaetognatha
Anthozoa
Cnidaria
Crangon
Mysidae
Pandalidae
Decapoda
Gammaridae
Hyperiidae
Caprellidae
Isopoda
Cumacea
Stomatopoda
Cancer
Brachyura
Hydrozoa
Polychaeta
Ostreoida
Bivalvia
Ammodytes marinus
Clupea harengus
Alosa pseudoharengus
Scomber
Peprilus triacanthus
Actinonaias ellipsiformis
Tridonta arctica
Merluccius bilinearis
Urophycis regia
Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus
Hippoglossina oblonga
Pleuronectes americanus

Based on studies in:
USA, Northeastern US contintental shelf (Coastal)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
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Diseases and Parasites

Epitheliocystis. Bacterial diseases
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on crustaceans
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Reproduction

Oviparous. Spawning from summer to autumn.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Cohen, D. M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Urophycis regia

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Urophycis regia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: unreliable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this order
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Wikipedia

Urophycis regia

The spotted hake or spotted codling (Urophycis regia) is a fish species belonging to the genus Urophycis.

Identification[edit]

The spotted hake can be distinguished by its tapering body, two dorsal fins, and filamentous pelvic fins similar to the white and red hake. It differs from the two, however, but not having a third ray of the dorsal fin prolonged into a filament, by having larger scales, and a larger mouth with the end of the maxillary behind the level of the back of the eye. Its coloration is distinctive, having a black distal half of the dorsal fin with a narrow white margin. The lateral line is black but interrupted by a series of white spots. Its pelvic fins are white.


References[edit]

"The Inland Fishes of New York State." C. Lavett Smith.

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